Role Of A Data Link Layer In Computer Networks

Data Link Layer

The role of the data link layer in the computer networks is responsible in multiplexing the data streams, detecting data frames, with medium accessing and controlling errors. As stated by Mao et al. (2018), data link layer is the 2nd layer to OSI layered model and it has underlying hardware and that helps to represent the upper layers as the medium for communication. Data link layer also works between the two hosts and are cone ted directly to one another and this connection is either broadcast or point to point. The systems present on the broadcast networks are connected lays on the same link. Moreover, while dealing with diverse and multiple numbers of hosts on single colliding domain, data link layers get more complex. Vinayakumar et al. (2017) had mentioned that one of the functionalities of the data link layer in the computer networks is framing. In this aspect, the data-link layer takes the packets from the Network layer and further encapsulates them to Frames. It, therefore, sends each of the frames bit-by-bit on the hardware. The data link layer at the receiver’s end, then picks up the signals from the hardware and then assembles them into the frames as well. According to the opinion of Hadi et al. (2018), the other functionality of the data link layer in the computer networks is addressing. The data-link layer helps providing 2-layer hardware that helps to address the business mechanisms. It is assumed that the hardware address has to be unique on links. It has been done into the hardware during the manufacturing time as well. To know more about the data link layer, students can take help from online assignment help experts from ArabEssay.

As per the outlook of Rehman et al. (2019), “synchronization” is another functionality of data link layer in the computer networks. This is used while the data link layer synchronizes the data frames those are sent on links. It also adds header to frame for defining the physical addresses of the receiver and sender present on the frame. In-case the frames are being distributed to diverse network systems. While the data frames are being sent on links, it helps in transferring the orders in-between the machines. Palanca et al. (2017) had opined that “controlling of errors” is the other functionality of data link layer in the computer networks. In this aspect, it is seen that signals sometimes encounters problem at the time of transition and the bits have been flipped. The errors are being detected and the data link layer attempts recovering the actual bits of data. The errors on detected and facing attempts of recovery, provides reports of errors to the senders as well. It also prevents duplication of the frames. As mentioned by Mao et al. (2018), “flow controls” is another functionality of data link layer in the computer networks. The stations present on the same link provide high-level of capacity and speed. The data-link layer also helps to ensure control helps in enabling the use of machines for exchanging data on a similar kind of speed. In order to overcome such issue, the data link layer prevents sending of the nodes on the link’s one side from the overwhelming and that causes receive of nodes on the other side of the links as well.

Figure 1: Data Link Layer
(Source: Palanca et al. 2017)

According to the outlook of Vinayakumar et al. (2017), “multi-accesses” is the other functionality of data link layer in the computer networks. While the host is present on the shared link as it tries to transfer data, it provides collision, which has the high probability of occurrences. The data-link layer helps providing mechanisms like CSMA/CD for equipping the capability to access the shared media among the diverse systems of operations as well.  Hadi et al. (2018) had mentioned that “reliable delivery” is another functionality of data link layer in the computer networks. It provides reliable services to delivery and that helps transiting the network layer datagram with no errors. The service provided by data link layer provides reliable delivery over the services and it also provides high rates of error occurrences, which can be locally correlated. It also links at the time of occurrence of the errors and doesn’t force retransmission of the data.

As opined by Rehman et al. (2019), data link layer, therefore, takes packet from the networking layer and that helps breaking it into the subsequent frames. Header of this layer will be providing source as well as destinations regarding MAC addresses. According to assignment help experts, the data link layer will be converting the data to binary digits like 0 and 1 and then helps to prepare them for physical layers. It is present for carrying data packets from the sources to the destined destinations without any modification, changes and also by utilizing it. As stated by Palanca et al. (2017), the data link layer is the reliable form of data delivery aspect between the nodes and it also helps to form the frames from packets that have been received from the networking layer. It also helps to transfer the datagram across the individual link and also helps to define a format that helps in dealing with prevents the errors that occurred in the system. It also helps in the transmission of error-free data.  

How Does Administrative Law Relate To Business Law

Administrative And Business Law


Administrative law is also called administrative and public law. It is a law relating to management organizations. Governing bodies are established by law and are governed by laws, regulations and orders, court decisions, judicial orders, and decisions. Agencies are created by state or federal governments to achieve specific goals or objectives. Government agencies are created by the act of Congress. Congress drafts legislation called organic statute that sets out the purpose and structure of the agency. The agency is accused of doing so, as defined by Congress. The administrative agencies are created with the help of environmental tools and it also explains the responsibility. Management organizations have been around since the founding of the United States. However, industrialization had a profound effect on the development of administrative rules. As people moved from farms and rural areas to the cities in search of work and raising families, the economy changed. It was very difficult. As a result of these economic changes, the government saw the need to expand its regulation to protect and sustain society. In the 20th century, the number of agencies grew rapidly with the introduction of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to regulate food and medicine, the Federal Trade Commission (FTC), and the Federal Reserve System (FRS) regulated banks. These are just some of the structures designed to control industries. Eventually, this growth occurred in response to economic hardship.


The rule of law affects the community daily. Administrative law is the delegated power given to administrative agencies to perform certain functions. Government agencies strive to protect the rights of citizens, companies, and any other business through administrative law. Management agencies are developed to protect consumers and the public. As a result, they are present in all aspects of life, including medicine, food, the environment, and trade. One of the state-recognized organizations is the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The FDA was created to protect public health (Oswald, 2018). Agency obligations are very broad. The agency fulfills its role by ensuring the safety and effectiveness of drugs used by humans and animals, biological products, medical devices, food, and cosmetics. Specifically, the FDA regulates public consumption, including additives, infant formula, bottled water, food additives, eggs, certain meats, and other food products. The FDA also regulates biological materials and medical devices, including vaccines, mobile medical products, implants, and dental devices. This federation started in 1906 with the passing of the Pollution of Food and Drug Law (Metzger, & Stack, 2017). The United States is facing a shortage of EpiPens, so in 2018, the FDA took steps to address the issue. The FDA has approved an extension of EpiPen expiry dates for four months at specific EpiPen locations. The extension has affected the community and the organization that produces EpiPens. That same year, the FDA approved the first standard EpiPen. A new generic version will be developed by a pharmaceutical company that has never produced EpiPen before. These two actions affect consumers by increasing the supply of life-saving EpiPens. To know more about FDA, take assistance from ArabEssay Law assignment help experts

Federal Trade Commission (FTC) is another well-known agency. The FTC was founded in 1914 when President Woodrow Wilson signed the Federal Trade Commission Act. The purpose of the agency is to protect consumers, to promote business competition, and to promote consumer interests by promoting innovation (Parrillo, 2017). The FTC works within the United States and abroad to protect consumers and promote competition. The organization fulfills this role by formulating policies, in collaboration with law enforcement to ensure consumer protection, and to help ensure that markets are open and free. For example, the management and enforcement of the Calling List is part of the FTC’s consumer protection policy. The FTC protects consumers from inappropriate or misleading practices. Phone fraud is a common problem. Scammers do everything in their power to trick the public into giving false charities, providing personal information, or providing access to financial information. The FTC is aware of these problems and imposes laws to punish fraudsters and educate the public. The FTC has created a telephone scam reporting system to help collect information about fraudsters so that they can be prosecuted. The agency also collects information about fraudsters and creates learning materials for the public. These features are designed to help consumers identify phone fraudsters, avoid their tactics, and report their activities (Bagley, 2017). Administrative law lies at the crossroads of several streets, crossing legal and political boundaries, political ideology and political science, public law, and public administration. As the governing body of government, the future of administrative law lies in increasing knowledge of how the law and legal institutions can advance important political and social values. Concerns about democratic values ​​will continue to dominate research in administrative law, as they will have an interest in the role of the judiciary, the judiciary, and the administration in improving governance. However, administrative law can expand and must grow to meet the new roles that government will face in the future. Ongoing efforts to reduce regulation and the creation of shares could signal a resurgence in the division between the public and private sectors in many countries, the effects of which will undoubtedly affect administrative law (Pasquale, 2017). Administrative law help now applies to an increasingly global and digital world, with the emerging use of international administrative institutions and new technologies that can advance public legitimacy and policy effectiveness – or that may undermine or support legal institutions. No matter where certain challenges may arise in the future, social science research on administrative law will continue to be needed to understand the functioning of public institutions and to identify ways to make laws and policies that can enhance social welfare, promote good governance, and enhance transparency and democratic rule. Administrative agencies are created by Congress or state legislatures by voluntary action. Consent action is a principle that forms the administrative agency and determines the magnitude of the powers vested in that agency. Some acknowledging functions are common and give the agency a lot of understanding. Some favorable activities are very limited and indicate the type of power the agency has (Walker, 2017).

While the law department forms administrative structures, they are often part of the executive branch because their main purpose is to enforce the law. Agencies in the upper branch are called executive agencies. At the level of government, these organizations are within the presidential cabinet. The President is empowered to appoint and oversee the leadership of the governing bodies, which includes replacing the current leadership when the President is sworn in. The governor has the same power at the highest levels of government. An independent agency is an agency, commission, or board that is not under the direction of a president or governor. Congress and state legislatures form independent bodies when they seek to block the work of political agencies and to address concerns beyond the scope of common law. These structures have a responsibility to keep the government and the economy running smoothly, especially when different political parties enter the state. Examples of private organizations include the Federal Trade Commission and the Central Intelligence Agency (Barnett, Boyd, & Walker, 2018). Private organizations are usually governed by boards or commissions consisting of five to seven members, from both major political parties, as well as independent political parties or minority political parties. The term of office of the board and commissioner is usually four to nine years, during which time rules are set to prevent total benefits at the same time. Most administrative agencies are created to protect the public interest, such as privacy, civil rights, or disease prevention. For example, the Clean Air Act is a collection of corporate laws that aim to prevent pollution. The Environmental Protection Agency (also known as the EPA) is an organization responsible for implementing the Clean Air Act. The EPA may investigate, conduct hearings, and impose fines based on its findings.

Government agencies were created and empowered by the United States Congress. These structures primarily function as the arm of the highest branch of government, but some organs of state are independent (Masur, & Posner, 2018). State agencies are created and empowered by the state legislature. The Federal Administrative Procedure Act (FAPA) governs the corporate governance law of the organization. This action regulates the administrative agencies involved in the drafting and implementation of regulations. FAPA also directs a process that allows state courts to review agency decisions. Countries have their FAPA versions. An independent agency is an agency, commission, or board that is not under the direction of a president or governor. Congress and state legislatures form independent bodies when they seek to block the work of political agencies and to address concerns beyond the scope of common law. These structures have a responsibility to keep the government and the economy running smoothly, especially when different political parties enter the state. Examples of private organizations include the Federal Trade Commission and the Central Intelligence Agency. To know more about the FTC and CIA, take instant assignment help from ArabEssay.

Private organizations are usually governed by boards or commissions consisting of five to seven members, from both major political parties, as well as independent political parties or minority political parties. The term of office of the board and commissioner is usually four to nine years, during which time rules are set to prevent total benefits at the same time. Agencies are empowered to enforce administrative rules and the fundamental law identified in agency approval. Unlike law enforcement investigations, agencies do not need a possible reason to launch an investigation. Generally, agencies are authorized to investigate by simply enforcing the rules. Adjudicating a legal dispute resolution process. In the case of an agency, this is a process similar to a trial or hearing used by agencies to enforce their actions and determine whether a business or individual has violated the law or regulations (Rose‐Ackerman, 2017).

Judgment can be either formal or informal. Formal judgment is similar to a trial and is usually considered by an administrative law judge (ALJ). The ALJ will determine which evidence is appropriate and valid, hear the evidence, and determine the outcome of the dispute in the findings. If appropriate, the ALJ will also determine a fine. Administrative exhaustion is a theory that, if a management remedy is provided by law, the party should seek first relief from the agency before obtaining court assistance. The purpose of this doctrine is to ensure that the courts will not assume cases where legal liberation is not required. Courts often cite the expertise of a case as an excuse to allow it to reconsider its action and correct mistakes, especially common ones that could significantly affect the party involved in the hearing. The Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) was passed by Congress in 1966 to provide a way for private citizens to request information from a unity government. As per the assignment maker, the main purpose of FOIA is to open up government operations so that the public can look to keep the government accountable to the people and the people who vote. The media makes up about 10 percent of FOIA requests, which is part of the investigation report. However, most applications come from businesses, lawyers, and individuals. Unless the alternative applies, the government must disclose the requested information. This has become a tool for businesses looking for more profit than their competition. Much government work is done through administrative structures. Given their responsibilities, they are often referred to as the “Fourth Branch” of the state. Agencies exist at all levels of government and have a great deal of understanding in enforcing and enforcing laws. Most businesses and individuals have contact with the government through agencies so it is very important to understand how they work to be successful in business and avoid legal consequences (Light, 2019). Sometimes harmful competition can arise when there are no rules. Banking and insurance are good examples of this. Without government regulation of banks (setting standards and procedures), open and fierce competition can lead to widespread bankruptcy. That can undermine public confidence in banks and businesses in general. According to a trade clause in the US Constitution, Congress has the power to regulate trade between nations and foreign nations. So the first federal agency dealt with trucks and railways, literally setting up traffic laws for foreign trade. The first government agency, the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC), was created in 1887. Congress gave the ICC the power to enforce organizational rules against railway discrimination and other unfair pricing practices. Earlier this century, the ICC gained the ability to adjust prices. From the 1970s to 1995, however, Congress passed legislative measures, and the ICC was officially abolished in 1995, with its powers vested in the Surface Transportation Board.

Independent agencies differ from government departments and other top agencies in their structure and function. Most administrative departments have one director, administrator, or secretary appointed by the president of the United States. Independent agencies probably have a commission or board with five to seven members sharing power over the agency. The president appoints commissioners or a board according to the Senate’s affirmation, but they usually act on behalf of and often for a longer period of four years. They cannot be removed without “good cause.” This means that most presidents will not get the appointment of all private company commissioners (Wachter, & Mittelstadt, 2019). Many independent agencies have a formal requirement for bipartisan membership in the commission, so the president cannot simply fill vacancies with members of his political party. Agencies have different powers. Many of the first laws that created them, such as the Federal Communications Act, gave them licensing rights. No party may enter into the productive work covered by this law without a license from the agency – for example, no business may establish a nuclear power plant without the prior approval of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. In recent years, economic downturns have led to a reduction in some licensing powers. Many agencies also have the authority to set rates charged by companies under the agency’s authority. Finally, agencies can control business processes. The FTC has full authority over all foreign trade businesses to monitor and eliminate “misconduct” and “fraudulent practices.” The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) oversees the issuance of corporate shares and other investments and monitors stock trading practices. Get to know more about SEC from ArabEssay assignment help experts.


It is concluded that in the above essay the information related to how the administrative law is related to business law and how it has an impact upon the business. It is enumerated that business law is the most effective element that maintains a better relationship with the customers. administrative law involves important political and social values, including democracy, impartiality, and efficiency. Management of the law of governance is reflected in part by the efforts made to create laws that better promote these values, and in part by the artistic efforts to explain how the law affects the functioning of organs of state.


Bagley, N. (2017). Remedial Restraint in Administrative Law. Colum. L. Rev., 117, 253.

Barnett, K., Boyd, C. L., & Walker, C. J. (2018). Administrative Law’s Political Dynamics. Vand. L. Rev., 71, 1463.

Light, S. E. (2019). The law of the corporation as environmental law. Stan. L. Rev., 71, 137.

Masur, J. S., & Posner, E. A. (2018). Cost-benefit analysis and the judicial role. The University of Chicago Law Review, 85(4), 935-986.

Metzger, G. E., & Stack, K. M. (2017). Internal Administrative Law. Michigan Law Review, 115(8), 1239-1307.

Oswald, M. (2018). Algorithm-assisted decision-making in the public sector: framing the issues using administrative law rules governing discretionary power. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 376(2128), 20170359.

Parrillo, N. R. (2017). The Endgame of Administrative Law: Governmental Disobedience and the Judicial Contempt Power. Harv. L. Rev., 131, 685.

Pasquale, F. (2017). Toward a fourth law of robotics: Preserving attribution, responsibility, and explainability in an algorithmic society. Ohio St. LJ, 78, 1243.

Rose‐Ackerman, S. (2017). What does “governance” mean?. Governance, 30(1), 23-27.

Wachter, S., & Mittelstadt, B. (2019). A right to reasonable inferences: re-thinking data protection law in the age of big data and AI. Colum. Bus. L. Rev., 494.

Walker, C. J. (2017). Modernizing the Administrative Procedure Act. Administrative Law Review, 69(3), 629-670.

Implementation Of HR Strategies In Tesco

Tesco HRM Practices


All organisations recruit people with specific and skill set in order to achieve their business objectives. However, attraction of the right people for the right job is not the primary objective. In order to ensure productivity and efficiency of the overall organisation the company should provide critical training and development to the employees. It is important to arrange employees on the basis of their sequence of skill and capabilities and retain them so that the organisation can create sustainable outcomes from them. These are the primary responsibilities of the human resource department of any company (Armstrong, 2005). Ranging from recruitment to retaining customers, the HR department of an organisation does a lot of activities. This research study emphasizes on analysing the scope and strategic approach of managing human resource activities in Tesco. Tesco is one of the largest supermarket chains in the entire world. The company is headquartered in the UK. the eminent activities of human resource Management in Tesco are recruitment and selection followed by induction and training and indulgence in two different motivational strategies (Beardwell et al., 2004). In addition to that the researcher will identify the way of managing individuals and group performance at the company.

Organisational Background

Tesco supermarkets is one of the biggest multinational grocery changes. It is considered as the third largest retail organisation in the whole world by means of their revenue purpose. In terms of the revenue earned, the company can be claimed as the 9th biggest retail market in the entire world. The company started operations since 1919 full stop the current headquarters of the organisation is in London full star recruits about 4.5 million employees (Watch, 2021). The major categories of products sold by Tesco includes grocery, household electronics, fresh food products along with vegetables and fruits, baby food products and so on. It is a renowned multinational organisation. Tesco has its self-owned banking company and their respective mobile network. As it is a market leader it is not easy to reach a position on account of efficiency in management systems only. It requires hard work for reaching that objective.

Process Of Recruitment And Selection At Tesco

Recruitment and selection are one of the most prominent responsibilities of the richer and department of a company. Recruitment of the right candidates for the specific position determines the original level of productivity of the company. In this regard any wrong decision my account for financial loss of the company. Various researchers considered that recruitment is the objective in any company by virtue of which the employees in the HRM department search prospective candidates and stimulates their skill so that they can fit into the job category of the company (Blackwood, 1995). Recruitment on the other hand refers to selecting the right people for the desired job role. Selection of the candidate having appropriate knowledge and skills for a particular job role is important. Tesco is careful about selecting the right candidates for the company. The primary motive of people selection strategy of a score is selection of qualified and skilled employees who have the right set of basic or advanced skills for a dedicated job role (Garrick, 1999).

Advertising Job Vacancy

Tesco is primarily associated with identification of empty positions of all concerned departments. After identification of position the HRM tesco research and development department of the company creates a list of required strength and capability of employees. After that it is possible to find out the necessary qualifications and skills required for all empty positions. After gathering of the detailed information, the company publishes their job advertisement with the help of sources like offline avenues and online avenues (Harrison, 2002). The offline sources are newspapers and television where are the online sources are search engine as well as various job posting websites on the open source internet.

The company is responsible for filtering the applications of people through automated software. in order to apply for position people should go to the respective Tesco website or third-party websites which drives into the job application at that is to website page and send their CV in case if with their job profile is the shortlisted. Test for has a policy of wasting no time to contact interested and deserving candidates. This is the reason why candidates get the opportunity to directly communicate their CV with the hiring manager at the HRM department (Hawkins, 1994). All recruitment drives in the company goes on for a specific date line and when the same is over the company starts itching and shortlisting applicants on the basis of their skill set in the first place followed by their actual qualification and then by their degree and certifications. Tesco recruitment drive is not based on prominent previous experience or actual work experience full step on the contrary the organisation looks out for basic skills which might be transformed into designated working skills in a specific work area (Marchington & Wilkinson, 1996).

Interview Pattern

The personnel from HRM department of Tesco initially conducts a telephonic interview with the Frontline of shortlisted candidates. After the interview over telephone is over Tesco HRM team moves on to the next role which is providing a brief induction of job responsibilities and rights to be enjoyed by the candidate. There is a transparency polishing the nature and environment by virtue of which the company does not want any candidate to join the company having any doubt or confusion against the deliverables and expectations (Mullins, 2005). The service by there is a general discussion involved in the 15 minutes telephone interview where the candidate not only speaks about their educational qualification but also compliments by speaking about the way in which their skill and educational competence will benefit the company. By virtue of this they can speak about their previous job experience and success achieved in that positions or their knowledge about job rights and responsibilities and so on. Every stage disco looks out for the job preparedness of a candidate only. After the telephonic interview it is the time for the final store interview. The final store interview is a predominant type of interview which is applicable for all candidates.

Tesco does not have the propensity of recruiting people directly from external resources in positions higher than executive managerial roles. Tesco hrm practice expect people to internal progress through stages in their course of employment with the company by learning values and expectations so that they become acquainted with the organisational culture of success. This is the reason why the final story interview is very vital (Reader, 1998). On the basis of telephonic interview, the HRM team of is code for words deserving candidates for end interaction with the HR managers who selects applicants on the basis of their interview results in the first round. In the final round the actual knowledge and skill of people are tested. Test for doesn’t expect people to have previous recruitment experience or specialisation training or certification. Nevertheless, if the same comes in handy to create an impression about the candidate’s knowledge about customer service, idea about work experiences specifications, work rights and responsibilities and so on, then the same is invited. It is because these are the elements which the HRM a manager is looking for as an end outcome from the final interview.

Candidate joining

The HRM team has a critical role in this position as well. After the final interview is over it is the responsibility of the HR managers in the company to directly send of a letter to the deserving candidates communicating them with expected date of joining and all other specifications of recruitment (Reid and Barrington, 1997).

Strategic HRM Policy

In the last year the profit margins of a square increased by 20% which to the company to record 2 billion therefore setting new milestone for the business. Tesco takes one out of every three pounds spent in supermarket and more than one of every 8 pounds spend on their High Street business change. The company is considered as the biggest private employer in the UK. The current human resource management strategy of the company is emphasized around the work simplification followed by challenging the non-registered regulation and implementing basic skills by all employees to exhibit better performance (Walton, 1999). Tesco expects all employees to counsel the scope of performance management in association with achieving steering wheel targets. It highlights that the human resource management strategy of the company is closed associated with performance management parameters.

The individual employees and opportunity of understanding their respective to contribute in pursuit of The Core values and purpose in the company. This is the reason why the nature and department of the organisation has recently engineering and innovative induction program catering to different cultures and learning styles and variable commitment towards job. A frontline employee has great value in the company and they are considered as the terminal reflection of organisational values and selling propositions towards customers. However, all employees at all level of hierarchy in the company has very integral role to play in reflecting the core values and maintaining the commitment made by the company to customers on a daily basis (Guest, 1999). To know about Tesco HRM, feel free to connect assignment help driven by Arabessay

One of the primary challenges faced by the company is ensuring that all of their employees are aware of the role that they play as individual and as a greater part of the organisation. The accomplishment of the above-mentioned objective is possible when they apply is able to see their actions reflected in the bigger picture and how they are contributing to the overall business growth. This is the reason why the HRM department incorporates a graphical journey during the induction and skill training of employees which takes them through the history of the company followed by its core objective and values. In the latest stage this journey takes them through the business objectives and financial objectives of the company and explain them in detail the operations and marketing pattern of a score with a manifestation of the commitment made by the company towards customers (Nixon, 2004).

The business strategy of Tesco considers the HRM department to play an integral and leading role to renter competitive advantage to the company over their competitors in a fiercely competitive supermarket sector. The HRM department of the organisation is created the strategic policy with the objective of freeing up store employees so that they can focus on improving the customer service outcome.

The future of better employee profiling at the company is based on providing a clear way of defining roles and responsibilities for the employees. The current system of human resource management guarantee that all employees should understand their responsibility and accountability is and consult among each other and with seniors and other designated individuals to understand how their job role reflect in the company. The company uses a group of 30 and management techniques for improvement of the core skills of the workforce. The HRM department is responsible for engineering training process involving the management techniques and ensuring that all employees achieve best outcomes through learning of these management techniques (Paauwe & Boselie, 2003). The techniques include the primary set of activities like root cause analysis followed by problem solving as well as the situation and learning and coaching for better performance among other techniques. Tesco has been following a centralised commanding strategy. However essay writer said recently the organisation has shifted to people based this strategy of performance. As a part of this strategy people are considered as the core element of strength in the company and it is rendered that all other assets in the organisation achieve maximum potential in terms of their respective functionality in the hands of the employees who drives them. The importance of this attitude is that employees exhibit hard work and innovation on individual project base is recognising the scope of driving betterment and expansion of the company (Poulter, 2005). There is a scope of organising active quarterly board meeting involving the human resource managers to review the human resource issues in the company and delegating solution for those issues. The company is responsible for tracking human resource information as close as they track financial outcomes. In the future Tesco has an intention of continuing emphasis on increase of skills of their workforce. The first objective is to make learning a part of actual integrated culture which is a very crucial way of developing flexibility and remaining one step ahead of the rivals (Rogers, 2004).

Analysis Of HR Practices At Tesco

Recognising the need of HRM and HR activities in the retail business profile has increased in recent times full studies on outcome of competition from various overseas companies which are trying to create a global retail environment like Tesco as well. In various countries like Japan, Germany or Sweden, there are various retail organisations which are trying to setup alternative competitive markets. In this regard all organisations require continuous investment for increasing strength of their employees also that they can actually my ties with any business environment and the situation in order to drive a stable success. However, the business environment of a country and a specific business environment of the industry has a difficult impact on the selected and strategies of a company. Treen (2000), highlights the difference in hard and soft HRM strategies. The heart and study chamber sizes on the company e related objectives and seldom relates with the individual concern of the employees. Therefore, according to this concept any judgment regarding the effectiveness of Tesco HRM will be based on the criteria of business performance on Vipul star on the contrary soft HRM also regards business performance as the main concern alongside advocating parallel concern for the outcome of the walkers. The appearance of the knowledge-based economy has a prominent implication for elements of growth, organising production and anticipating its impact on employment and the skill requirements (Whitelock, 2003).

It calls for search of new direction by the major and department of the company to tackle employee sustainability in the face of changing political environment and government policies. Recently the political forces in the UK appreciated and encouraged the lifelong learning strategy in the UK to have knowledge which will help employees to compete in the new economy. Tesco has complemented the expectations of the government in learning by introducing learning and training as a part of their strategic process. It can be argued that all companies need new skills to survive in the market (Leroy et al., 2018). However, without new thinking by the nature and team based on complexity and Chaos theory, it will not be possible for them to create a new vision for the company (Barnes, 2011). In the modern retail environment most companies are self-regulating and use open and the whole system. This is the reason why organisations are considered as living system which continuously requires to develop their skill and competence in order to sustain in a dynamic environment. To know more take instant assignment help from ArabEssay anytime,

Tesco has a process of strategic involvement of HRM strategies and their overall business plan. The managers in the department have been observed to utilise different aspects in decision-making aspects critically and align with the need of high commitment to the HRM dynamics therefore attempting to achieve acceptance from employees. The prominent picture of the strategic direction of the organisation is based on employee welfare. It helps the individual employees to understand their association with the company and therefore cover that extra mile to do whatever is required for the company (Karen, 1993). Therefore, the success strategy of the nature and department is placing high individual value on their individual human resource strength by motivating them to operate as a discrete leaving system within the organisation and achieve the best possible success for Tesco as organic entity. By virtue of this objective the organisation has increased to the process of training received by all employees on an individual basis (Kramar and Syed, 2012).

It is the outcome of the strategic objectives recently undertaken by the HR and department of the company. The current HR and department are no longer the administrative department. It works proactively to develop and execute strategies (Meighan and Meighan, 2000). The department of the company has recently emphasized on increasing training priority and the number of employees in the HRM department has been increased in order to facilitate the HRM performance. This practice emphasizes on instrument of growth by maintaining the same on a sustainable basis by equipment of the workforce with skills required in order to accomplish their task. Strategic HRM has gained credibility as well as popularity in the last decade particularly in relation to the impact on their organisational performance (Blum and Wall, 1997). Each employee is considered as a segment of overall strategy therefore instructing on the importance of their role. The training is delivered in a way encompassing the learning of new skills and allowing for cultural differences.

There is increased requirement for higher value to be placed on employees and therefore get the best of performance from the employees. Successful organisations have a strategy of keeping people issues in the front line of the thinking and at the core of their process of decision making and planning. Various researchers also articulate that the companies which get the people study right are likely to achieve better success in future (Hook and Jenkins, 2019). As Tesco is the biggest private employer in the UK States responsibility of people recruitment and management seriously. This attitude is reflected in the training and development policy of the company (Ivancevich and Konopaske, 2013). This has effect exceeded the government recommendations regarding employee training by successfully integrate in a lifelong learning as a part of their learning culture in the company. If you want to know more about Tesco research and development for your tuition assignment, assure online assignment help in Dubai right now from ArabEssay.


Considering the perspective of people management, a square has been a successful company. The integrated HRM department has left its mark in successful instrument of market share and expansion of retail units in the last 5 years. In conclusion it can be articulated that the integrated and strategic HRM policy is a major role player in the recent success of the company. Other companies can benefit from review of a school and policy. The model implementation of HRM and assimilation of external strategic elements by using the same to the benefit of the company has been A remarkable standpoint from the HRM department of the company. It can also be highlighted in conclusion that the frequent review and update of training policies has helped this quote to manager Global Business and highly profit in terms of better efficacy of employees at all hierarchy from training.

Reference List

Armstrong, M (2005) (9th Edition) A Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice Kogan Page, London

Beardwell, I. et al, (2004) (4th Edition) Human Resource Management a Contemporary Approach Prentice Hall, Harlow.

Blackwood T, (1995) Accounting for Business Business education Publishers Limited, Sunderland

Garrick (1999) Informal Learning in the Workplace: unmasking human resource development, Routledge Press, London.

Harrison, R (2002) (3rd Edition) Learning and Development: CIPD Publishing, London

Hawkins, P. (1994), The changing view of learning in Burgoyne, J., Pedler, M. and Boydell, T., Towards the Learning Company: Concepts and Practices, McGraw Hill, London.

Marchington, M. & Wilkinson, A. (1996) Core Personnel and Development IPD Publishing, London.

Mullins, L (2005) (7th Edition) Management and Organisational Behaviour Prentice Hall, Pearson Education, Edinburgh

Reader A, Strategic Human Resource Management (1998) Sage Publications, Pitman, London

Reid, M. and Barrington, H. (1997). (5th edition) Training Interventions: Managing Employee Development IPD Publishing, London.

Walton, J (1999), Strategic Human Resource Development,

Guest, D (1999) Human Resource Management–The Workers’ Verdict Human Resource Management Journal, London, 1999.Vol.9, Iss. 3;

Nixon, B. (2004) Creating a cultural revolution: the 21st century challenge for HRD Training Journal, Ely: Oct 2004

Paauwe, J & Boselie, P. (2003) Challenging ‘Strategic HRM’ And The Relevance Of The Institutional Setting Human Resource Management Journal 2003.Vol.13,

Poulter, S. (2005) 2billion Tesco, Daily Mail. London (UK): Apr 13th 2005

Rogers, S. (2004) Power To The People Managers People Management, London: Sep 2004. Vol. 10

Treen, D. (2000) Strategic Human Resources Ivey Business Journal, Jan/Feb 2000.Vol.64,

Whitelock, N. (2003)Tesco’s new recruits see the big picture training & Management Development Methods Bradford: 2003.Vol.17, Iss. 1

Barnes, R. (2011). The great Tesco beauty gamble (the Tesco supermarket chain’s marketing strategy for breaking into the UK beauty services market). Strategic Direction, 27(7).

Karen (1993). NHS market gets me a job down at Tesco. Nursing Standard, 8(4), pp.41-42.

Meighan, M. and Meighan, M. (2000). Induction training. London: Kogan Page.

Blum, M. and Wall, J. (1997). HRM: Managing conflicts in the firm. Business Horizons, 40(3), pp.84-87.

Hook, C. and Jenkins, A. (2019). Introducing Human Resource Management. Harlow, United Kingdom: Pearson Education Limited.

Ivancevich, J. and Konopaske, R. (2013). Human resource management. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Kramar, R. and Syed, J. (2012). Human Resource Management in a Global Context. Palgrave Macmillan.

Leroy, H., Segers, J., van Dierendonck, D. and den Hartog, D. (2018). Managing people in organizations: Integrating the study of HRM and leadership. Human Resource Management Review, 28(3), pp.249-257.

Watch, C. (2021) Tesco Company Profile – Corporate Available at: (Accessed: 1 September 2021)

DDOS Attacks Incident Analysis

DDOS Attack


The incidents of malware attacks have been rose 10 times since 2009 out of which 92% of the malware were delivered by mails. Malware and Distributed denial of service attacks continue to host the botnet control servers in the world out of which 7 out 10 malware were ransomware. The average cost of data breach to the companies is $3.86 million that takes on an average of 191 days to identify a data breach (Yik Ern, Alfred. 2019).  

A distributed denial service attack occurs when an attacker or a group of attackers trying to invade the services delivered. It can be possible by thwarting access virtually of anything be it devices, services, networks, applications or even specific transaction applications. The impact of the DDOS attack could range from a minor annoyance to huge costing to business. The primary motive of DDOS and DOS is to compromise the availability of a system thereby weakening the system on a major stance. This article evaluates the effect of DDOS attacks on mobile platform reporting incidents analysis till the date.


Technologies such as General Packet radio service (GPRS), GSM (Global System for mobile communication), Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS), Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE) and Bluetooth smartphones are doors to DDOS where malware infiltrates to carry out malicious activities. EDGE was introduced in an attempt of improving GPRS and to enhance the reliability of the service. Besides these constant efforts, malware block the legitimate users, steal their private data exploit devices from vulnerabilities. Under the DDOS attack, malware induces Trojans, botnets, rootkits, virus and worms. Worms are self-replicating reports whereas viruses are self-replicating codes, Trojan seems friendly software, rootkit focusing on installing Trojans that in turn disable firewalls, antiviruses. At last group of botnets used to immobilize the system and fetching significant details. 

Major DDOS Attack Events

The kind of DDOS attack that occurs is mostly untraceable because of the low adoption of counter spoofing. According to assignment help experts, the DDOS attack on a company website causes a data centre infrastructure downturn, preventing legitimate users from buying the company’s products. During DDOS attacks attackers use a large number of exploited machines including the Internet of things, personal computers, and network servers, to send a flood of traffics. 

In 2017 cybercrime, DDOS attacks have grown by 93%. The biggest DDOS spoofing attack took place in September 2017 when attackers sent spoofed packets to 180,000 web servers that in turn sent a message to the GOOGLE (Columbus, 2020). The attack hadn’t took place from a single spot even multiple attackers were collaborated over the past six months to attack Google infrastructure. 

Another major incident of DDOS attack witnessed in February 2020 at AWS when the site saw sudden traffic at a rate of 2.3 terabits per second (Tbps). The attacker used connection-less Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (CLDAP) web servers that are an alternative to LDAP. In recent years multiple DDOS attackers have used CLDAP to hijack the complete web server. 

DDoS attack recorded by Github is the largest one to date. The attack has sent .3 Tbps, packets at 126.9 million per second rate. Fortunately, Github was using DDOS protection alerted the system in 10 minutes within the attack. The massive DDOS attack was going on for 20 minutes (Fruhlinger, 2021). 

Following Github, in the history of mankind, no one can forget the Mafiaboy attack placed in 2000. A single 15 years boy named Mafia boy caused harm to major websites including DELL, e bay, Yahoo, E-trade, CNN. The attack has produced huge repercussions including the clashing of the stock market. 

The largest and unforgettable Spamhaus attack at Spamhaus, an organization directing users to combat spam-related mails filtering as much as spam got attacked in 2013. The site started receiving traffic 300 Gbps suddenly. In fact, the attack caused major issues in the London internet exchange. 

Kinds Of DDOS Attack

Broadly speaking a DDOS and Dos attack is categorized into three major types-

Volume-based attacks– It includes, ICMP floods UDP floods, and other spoofed-packet floods. The prime goal of an attacker is to saturate the bandwidth of attacked site that is measured in bits per second.

Protocol attacks– This consists of major DDOS Events such as SYN floods attacks, fragmented packet Smurf DDoS, and, Ping of Death. The core purpose of this form of attack is to consume significant data of the website, disturbing immediate communication requirements, for instance, load balancers, firewalls (Gupta, 2004)

Application layer attacks– Including long and short attacks targeting Apache, Windows, Open BSD vulnerabilities seeminglessly made to crash the website that is measure in  Requests per second (Rps). To know about cybersecurity based major laws in Arab, take essay writing help from Arabessay experts anytime. 

UDP FloodPing FloodSYN floodPing of Death
Here attackers flood the targeted website via User Datagram Protocol (UDP) packets. The goal of this sort of attack is to create a flood in the random site of the host (Imperva.2020)                 ICMP overwhelm the target source ICMP Echo Request (ping) packets, generally, attackers send the packets on a large amount without waiting for the responses.                  An SYN flood targets the vulnerable TCP connection sequence confirmed by ACK response. Attackers send multiple SYN requests to the host site                 Attackers send multiple pings where the size of ping packets would be 65,535 bytes (Pawar, Mohandas & Anuradha, 2015). In the end, the host target will end up with IP packets causing denial to the legitimate packets.                

Cyber Security Risks

According to the report of, 2018 80,000 cyber-attacks per day has identified in 2018. In any way, 20% of the DDOS created traffic is not able to combat. 70% of the company’s representatives have accepted cybersecurity risks increased significantly than in 2019. In the same report, it was highlighted over the past few years, MacOs malware and DDOS attack were increased by 165%. Also, it was notified 7 out of 10 malware were ransomware. However, experts and assignment helpers have expressed malware development from windows reduced by 11%. Crossing over 18 million websites was attacked by malware and DDOS at some point in a week. 50% of the companies are experiencing an industrial control system security. With government initiatives and companies alertness, 5.4 billion WannaCry virus attacks were blocked. As cyber security threat causing an alarming situation, every country are connected and come to together to develop highly protected software to stop breaching acts.

Source- 2018


DDOS attack has become a serious problem for the current business since every incident creates either reduction in business process or ample data get lost. This blog explored The Impact of DDOS attacks that could range from a minor annoyance to huge costing to business. However, blog ended up on the identified primary motive of DDOS and DOS i.e. enabling compromising the availability of a system thereby weakening the system on a huge level.


Columbus. L, 2020. Why Integrating Network Technology & Security Makes Sense Now. Available at-–security-makes-sense-now/?sh=347c18b61fc5

Fruhlinger. J. 2021. DDoS explained: How distributed denial of service attacks are evolving. Available at- Data accessed on 7 September 2021

Gupta, Vaibhav & Goswami, Sumit & Kumar, Ashok & Singh, Mohinder. 2004. Networking and Security Measures. DESIDOC Bulletin of Information Technology. 24. 10.14429/dbit.24.2.3621.

Imperva.2020. Distributed denial of service attack (DDoS) definition. Available at- Data accessed on 7 September 2021

Pawar, Mohandas & Anuradha, J.. 2015. Network Security and Types of Attacks in Network. Procedia Computer Science. 48. 10.1016/j.procs.2015.04.126.

PurpleSec.(2020)Cyber Security Statistics The Ultimate List Of Stats, Data & Trend. Available at Data accessed on 7 September 2021Yik Ern, Alfred. 2019. Network Security. 10.13140/RG.2.2.19900.59526.

Do Customer Pay Attention To Product Labels?

Product Labels


The longstanding debate has renewed since the European Union made a provision over the nutritional labels of food items as the highest population of the member countries is either obese or dealing with digestive problems. But when it is asked during an engagement poll by Michigan State University Experts, the majority of Americans accepted food labels influence their purchasing behaviour. During the survey, 2048 Americans polled for a variety of food, 71% respondents having monthly income more than $75000 have found to pay close attention to food labels. But income is not the only category influencing purchasing power of a consumer; education appears to be a vital factor affecting attention to product labels as well.  In the same study, 60% of the Americans said, they look for label naturally whenever they shop for food items (Shanggun. Mozaffarian. 2019). It is notable most of the times consumer searches for product labels are also ambiguous. For instance, natural doesn’t mean we are eating healthy, even it could be unhealthier, like arsenic found in nature but we can’t consume as said Sheril Kirshenbaum, co-founder of MSU engagement poll. 

In the current business scenario, marketers are using labels to produce an impactful brand image and bringing identification. Labelling helps the consumer to set out differences against rest in shelves of markets.  But to what extent product labelling can influence consumer purchase power yet needed to be quantified. This study will determine centrally located nutrition facts viewing as eye-tracking devices.


In countries like Denmark, the UK, Germany, USA more than 50% of young adults are obese. Under the European directive on nutritional labelling (90/46/ ECC) nutritional labelling is an option until a claim is made. Nowadays EU is thinking to make it an essential part as they want to save their citizens from growing diseases. Similarly, in contrast to the EU, nutritional labelling is mandatory in the USA. In 2004 Nutritional Labelling and Education Act (NLEA) made it a mandatory provision to label product on almost all the food packages. The majority of advertising firms and marketers pay close attention to this substitution to enhance marketing strategies. However, in a study essay writer figured out nutritional labelling came to light only when consumers were willing to pay for it. On the same note, nutritional labelling will be useful to what extent, the consumer prefers to recommend healthier food.

Kim, 2000 revealed in a study, the effect of nutritional labelling somewhat reduces the individual calories intake from total saturated fats such as cholesterol, in the end, he concluded consumer labelling marks to enhance the brand value when they make a food purchase.

Many studies also analyzed the mandatory nutritional labelling impact on purchasing power. Results indicated, mandate labelling benefitting the market of food and packaging industry as it will load the consumer with the nutritional information. Crutchfield, 2001 estimated the minimal profits companies will incur with the mandate labelling system somewhat lies in between $160 million to $120 million since the actual costing will be lesser than margins.  However, the benefits will be ranges from milk to meat industries, pharma to diet supplements.

Types Of Labelling In The Market

As we have already discussed labelling is the main concern of marketers, let’s understand what kind of labelling is applied to a particular firm

Branded product labels- Branded product labels have to be secure very carefully with the products since they are permanent labels. They may be difficult to remove and resistant to several factors’

Eco or information labels- Eco and information labels are usually clipped to target the consumer emphasis on getting information on calories. They used to impart the information of the food items to the consumers.

Grade Level- it describes the main feature and aspects of the product. It is marking off a commodity itself or a symbol or even phrases itself implying qualitative judgment relative inferiority or superiority (Dan, 2019). From a consumer perspective, grading labelling is much more useful than information labelling because grade notation itself in selecting sold by the same seller. 

Why Product Labelling To Be On the First

The visual design of the product labelling has a significant impact on brand value as well as influence consumer purchasing power. Evidence from various studies revealed design features increase the contrast of labelling, therefore, enhances the noticeability likelihood to be progressed as well as message acceptance. In a broader sense, labelling featuring distinguish the product from the surrounding information are more likely to be attracted if it overcomes the warning signs. 

With increasing consumer awareness, labelling marketing size increases exponentially. The global labelling marketing size valued up to USD 5.7 billion in 2018 and is expected to grow at a compound annually at 7.0% between 2019-2025. 

Source-, 2020

Since consumers are demanding greater productivity amongst the diverse products, This, in turn, has increased the pressure on marketers and labelling marketing contribution to product complexity. In order to meet the demand, producers are looking for versatile labelling units that can accommodate numerous technologies.

Rising demand, accurate measurement and simple labelling solutions fueled up the market demand. In addition to this labelling marketing dispense barcodes and various cartoons packages in the sector.

In terms of end-use, label marketing is characterized by personal care, chemicals, food beverages, and others. As per the grand view, 2019 report, the beverage industry dominated the whole industry as a result of growing disposable income rising trends of healthy drinks. This further boosted the beverage industry fueling the labelling marketing at the end. To know about the beverage industry, take instant assignment help from ArabEssay

Following this food Industry accounted for the second-largest share of Label marketing in 2018. The growth of organic food coupled with the increasing demand of ready to eat mode anticipated favour the growth. Over the forecast period, the Pharmaceutical industry is the third-largest industry has seen investing millions of bucks in informing consumers through labelling. Increased growing population and rising awareness of diseases fueled up even more demand for significant and informative products (Bialkova, and van Trijp, 2010). Various labelling is done with an intention to produce infirmity in the pharmaceutical products Standards including the Labelling and Packaging (CLP) Classification, regulation, and Hazard Communication Standard are likely to influence the positive role.

Formulation And Use Of Quality Standard

Walking down in the isles of grocery stores, when you pick up the product, somewhere on it, there would be nutrition, and ingredients labelling

A recent report of the American Journal of Preventive medicine identified ingredients labelling have influenced consumer choices. After concluding the observation of 2 million users from 11 countries, the report concluded, products manufactured have reduced the intake of calories by 6%, total trans fat by 10.2 % and increase sublimation of vegetables by 13%. Other than unhealthy choices among the respondents is noted 13%. However, there is very less evidence identified labelling choices implicated the carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, minerals intake. 

When a study was conducted to discover how many consumers were influenced after introducing changes in the products, it was identified; harmful fats in food are reduced by 64% ( Acton,, 2019). Yet overall observation concluded this would have very less effect on consumer choices alternatively don’t impact the calories intake. 

The consumer always tried to work best for themselves and in the simpler way they choose healthier food. The label also appeared on the nudge food companies as they want to reduce the major industrial addictive such as transfat and sodium but don’t affect the industry formulation. 

Few studies have shown available assessing the food label in adding sugars. On that notes food choices does affect the consumer choices who are either diabetes or dealing with pancreases problems. Food labelling also helped in reducing the intake of additional sugar, fat but it was quite clear increasing the total fat has very little impact on health benefits. 

Nutritional knowledge could be very important in many other ways for instance having a direct impact on food choices also impacting their belief to some extent. Also, many essay helpers believed nutrition knowledge and food labels act as a bridge. 

In the US, over 98% of FDA-regulated processed, or packed food has nutritional labels roughly 84% of the European countries labelled food products. Close to Two-third of respondents in the report have made their food choices after recognizing the NFPs. However Miller, 2015 found 78% of the consumer accurately identified the difference in the products, Yet 20% struggling to differentiate the products item list

Apart from that non-addictive food items are containing the most significant information aiding the assessment of food healthiness. Dietary guidelines, 2019 states, ingredients lists are useful to figure out whether the food is containing trans-fats, added sugars, refined or whole grains. FDA recommended the list helping the consumer to get informed. Consequently, health claims are intended to communicate proven health benefits concerning consumption power. For example, a reduction in Trans fibre may help in combating the risk of potential cancer. However claims have been made, the nutritional label has very little impact on product evaluation however comprehensive claim is relatively higher with greater education and experience (Loureiro,, 2010).

How Label Can Impact Marketing

Packaging and labelling design was the first thing that came to light when the consumer first interacted with products. Good labelling mixed with marketing increases brand recognition, productivity, even speaks what is your product about and what it stands for. A great example of it is the juice company nudies, which created their first drink with a unique and clean design. Nudie drink spread all over Australia in food and beverages stores.

Communicative Role of Labeling in Islam

As per the cue utilization theory, consumers use extrinsic factors as arrogance to product quality and consumers are likely to pay close attention to labelling design, packaging, product sustainability’s, health benefits etc. Therefore packaging referred to as extrinsic factors influence perception of taste, company image and in more sophisticated statement symbolizes the connotation.

In Islam, Halal logo certification is most likely to accept facts by Muslims. Many assignment writer said Halal logo  provides number of benefits to the Muslim consumers and marketers. Muslims in non-Muslim countries often seen relies on the Symbol V for vegetarianism that works as an extrinsic factor deem to be suitable products. In a survey, it was identified Arabian and middle east countries citizens spend a considerable amount of money or time seeking out packages having a halal logo or suitable for them to eat. Further, in the absence of a Halal log, respondents tend to go with the screening process through reading product labelling (Khan, 2017). One of the major cues reported from UK samples marked the V symbol as an integral part of labelling designing.

Another communicate role of labelling is it produces embarkation of warning or potential hazard associated with product consumption. Despite the fact that the majority of the respondents have shown a basic understanding of the table of contents, items lists, they would still require more accurate specifications as they search for additional information on the web many times. Thence there is no doubt product labelling largely impact their decision making power. To know more take online assignment help from ArabEssay today.


The purpose of this study is to negotiate the answer whether the product labelling affecting the consumer purchasing power or not. To the best authors knowledge and accounting secondary database, it was identified product labelling came to light only when consumers were willing to pay for it. On the same note, it will be useful to know to what extent, the consumer prefers to recommend products and services being delivered. During this study, it was explored packaging and visual designing plays a vital role in communicating the product benefits at first, but with research progression, study also revealed, labelling symbolize warning like if products contain any hazardous material or not. Since the demand for labelling food has been increased marketing, this study also accumulated data showing the reflection of labelling strategy on business growth.


Miller, L.M.S. and Cassady, D.L., 2015. The effects of nutrition knowledge on food label use. A review of the literature. Appetite, 92, pp.207-216.

Shanggun. S and Mozaffarian. D . 2019. Do food and menu nutrition labels influence consumer or industry behavior? Retrieved from

Acton, R.B., Vanderlee, L., Roberto, C.A. and Hammond, D., 2018. Consumer perceptions of specific design characteristics for front-of-package nutrition labels. Health education research, 33(2), pp.167-174.

Bialkova, S. and van Trijp, H., 2010. What determines consumer attention to nutrition labels?. Food quality and preference, 21(8), pp.1042-1051.

Dan J. Graham, Robert W. Jeffery. Location, Location, Location: Eye-Tracking Evidence that Consumers Preferentially View Prominently Positioned Nutrition Information. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 2011; 111 (11): 1704-1711 DOI: 10.1016/j.jada.2011.08.005

MSU.2020. Who is Paying Attention to Food Labels? Retrieved from-

Khan, Ghazala & Khan, Faiza. 2017. The role of packaging and labelling in determining ‘halalness’: an exploratory study of Muslims in two countries. International Journal of Islamic Marketing and Branding. 2. 85. 10.1504/IJIMB.2017.084807.

Loureiro, Maria & Gracia, Azucena & Nayga, Rodolfo. 2006. Do consumers value nutrition labels?. European Review of Agricultural Economics. 33. 249-268. 10.1093/erae/jbl005.

Grandview,2020. Labeling Machines Market Size, Share & Trends Analysis Report By Technology (Sleeve Labelers, Pressure Sensitive Labelers, Glue-based Labelers), By End Use, By Region, And Segment Forecasts, 2019 – 2025. Available at-

Global Marketing: How Do Companies Incorporate Standardization?

Global Marketing

The primary components of any business plan are associated with promotion of product. It is important to develop efficient and result-oriented marketing as well as advertising strategy particularly for your product to acquire international sales. In this case, the business may consider using a global standardization of marketing for the product is followed by gaining a large customer base and increase of sales as well as profit (Lee and Griffith, 2019). Global standardization in marketing is a standardized approach towards marketing activities which can be international utilised. This marketing strategy helps in working across diverse cultures and various nations in promoting the same product. And important example of the organisation which uses global standardization is Coca-Cola. That the organisation uses standard brands for standard formulation standard packaging and positioning strategy the global markets.

Importance Of Global Standardization

The advancement of technology as well as fast and communication has made global connectivity easier than before. For each economy, standardization depends on marketing important tools and techniques for a multinational organisation which reaches throughout the globe. By defining a unified marketing Framework effective across multiple time zones an organisation can save time and money in the marketing efforts in the marketing strategies in every region is unnecessary (Rao-Nicholson and Khan, 2017).

Variable market has different 110 degrees as. Coronavirus 1 market might view soda is a common place whereas other market can perceive so that to be a luxury. The application of global standardization towards marketing as a humanized so that a might not decide to work in a specific region. This is the reason because of which organisations need to develop specific case of specific countries on the basis of the specific economic status of the country (Ratten, 2017). Any poor country where inhabitants have less disposable income will not respond to a marketing strategy to which works in a more favourable economy.

Difference In Marketing Effort

Any business owner using global standardization for marketing of products also encountered the risk of losing a large number of local businesses to the local company who can customise their goods and also their marketing strategies on the basis of the preferences of the local population. For evidence is there is a global fast-food chain selling hamburgers on an international base is it can lose local customers to the local competitors of the credibility of customers in hamburgers according to the popular taste in a specific area. In these instances, it is important to adopt the global marketing tactics to the specific local markets whenever required. For evidence is research highlights that Parisians enjoy avocado on burgers then the burgers sold in Paris should also include the same in radiant (Venaik and Midgley, 2019).

Can We Standardise Multinational Marketing?

From the perspective of multinational marketing is the differences existing between various nations are great and dynamic. In previous times these differences allowed US based organisations to perceive it strategy in every country strictly as a local issue. However in recent times a situation has undergone changes and the experience of increasing number of multinational organisations suggest that there exists a real for tension again to be considered as a part of standardization of various elements of marketing program to be used in various areas (De Mooij, 2018). Marketing assignment help derived the gain ranges from substantial cost savings and consistency in dealing with customers to better planning as well as control and exploring ideas with universal appeal the one of the most important elements discussed in the past decade has been emergence of multinational organisations as essential computers ever growing industries. As trade values in Western Europe and in other areas diminishing there are more companies which found attractive opportunities for expansion in other countries than their traditional market (He and Wang, 2017). For some of the is the operations abroad become so extensive and complex that in order to acquire a significant change in organisation and operating methods is required to diversification of their own strategy. The problem encountered by management is actually multinational organisations different degree and kind of traditional organisational working.

Details About Marketing

Importance of multinational organisation system-related large number of comment and advice followed by conference and seminar and survey which increased the scope of distinctive financial as well as legal accounting as well as organisational and personnel problems of this new kind of enterprises.

Some of the eminent marketers advocated the adoption of uniform advertising approach on the basis that fundamental consumer motives are essentially the same in every location. The proposition often has a partisan tone especially for executives of large advertising agencies with the international network of subsidiary as well as affiliate office. Then the question of advertising approaches cannot be considered realistic isolation from the elements of the marketing mix of a company in individual markets incorporating product line for packaging as well as pricing and distribution system as well as a sales force and other promotional methods. It is considered to be practical to counter the development of a marketing strategy in the context of all elements or multinational escape (Brotspies and Weinstein, 2019). However there is great debate regarding the same. In this regard a conventional wisdom suggests that the multinational efforts will not be realistic however on account of great differences among Nations it will still exist. For evidence, George Weissman the president of Philip Morris incorporated that until we achieve one world there is no such thing as international marketing only local marketing so the world. Apparently the other marketing executives agree with this perception. Marketing is conspicuous on the basis of absence from functions which can be planned at corporate headquarters level. The operating experience of various international organisations needs to confirm desirability of assignment of long-range planning of the marketing activities to the local managers. The prevailing view then is that the marketing strategy local problem or not (Yates and Murphy, 2019). The best strategy for organisation differs from country to country and design of the study should be left to the local management in each of the countries. If you need much information on marketing mix, connect term paper help of ArabEssay.

Two Sided Case

The experiences of living USA based organisations in recent years suggest that there might be something to be said in favour of two multinational marketing strategies. It is intended to outline possibilities as well as limitations of integrated approach to international marketing. All companies ensure application of common marketing policies in various countries for benefits. The relative importance of pros and cons vary from one industry to another and from one company to another first for the benefits are sufficiently universal as well as important to accomplish full analysis by Management which is virtually the case of any multinational company. The management should not generally dismiss the conceptualization of standard as in some of their marketing strategies at least in the major areas in this world (Cihon, 2019).

The Benefits Of Standardization

As a practical context standardization is not a clear tissue. In literal sense the multinational standardization mean of having identical product lines at identical prices throughout identical distribution system which has been submitted by identical promotional campaigns in various countries. At other extreme the completely localised marketing strategies containing no common elements should be considered. There is either of the extreme which are feasible or desirable. In this case the practical question is which particular elements in a marketing strategy can be standardized or should be standardized and to what extent. At present as said by essay typer majority of multinational organisations recruit strategies which are very close to localised end of the spectrum in comparison to the opposite pole (Williamson, 2021). In case if there are potential benefit of increase in standardization it will be achieved by including more common elements within the multinational spectrum of strategy poster individual marketing aspects of policy should be considered in first and then in context to other elements cool stuff we should examine the important benefits of standardization is a part of multinational marketing strategy.

Significant Cost Savings

The difference in level of national income for artists and other factors dictate the requirement for local product as well as the corresponding local marketing program. Countless examples are available in annual international business reports. It is implied for apparently similar Nations like USA or Canada. For example, Phillips Morris tried to convert Canadian smokers into one of the popular American cigarette brands however with and successful in tension. Canadian wood brother fight then preserve their tradition of reference of the Virginia type of tobacco plants schools the example of this kind demonstrate that in order to obtain maximum sales in the country organisation should offer products as well as packages advertisement and use the marketing channel which are customised to the distinctive requirements and the desire of any country. Nevertheless maximization of sales should not be the only objectives in development of a marketing strategy post of profitability largely depend on sale and cost and there should be important opportunities for reducing cost in comparison to standardization (Leonidou et al., 2018). As per university assignment help the  most obvious opportunity and the most important for the matter are cost saving in case of product design. Offering the basic same product in various markets with a possible difference in functional as well as design aspects help the manufacturer in achieving a longer production run for it by spreading research and development cost over a great volume and therefore reduced the average unit cost.

Italian Invasion

Henry ford first demonstrated mass production economy by means of standardization however the same concept was dramatically repeated by the Italian household appliance industry during the 1960. In the middle of 1950 the combined Italy and production of refrigerator and washing machines with less than 3 million units since there were no potentially a manufacturer’s. In my only 3% of the household refrigerator and only one person hand washing machine schools the initiating in the late 1950 there were several campaigns of aggressive product development followed by marketing (Westjohn and Magnusson, 2017). Ironically, frequent Italian entrepreneurs applied lessons learnt from America as well as. A member of the Fumagalli family who are the owner of the appliances company called Candy and a prisoner of world in USA brought back the idea of washing machine in every home. The appliance manufacturing companies in Italy installed highly automated equipment which are modern and also invested their profit and produced simple and standardise product by large number. By the end of 1965 the refrigerant output was about 2.6 million units and the output for washing machine was 1.5 million units. This volume was sold within in deliberately and the home ownership of two appliances increased by 15% and 20% respectively. Wherever the Italian organisations and aggressive in export marketing followed by handmade manufacturers in 1965 accounting for 30% of the overall French market and also 40 to 50% of the overall Benelux market. In fact in German the home market of electrical giants like Bosch as well as Siemens attained about 12% share of the market (Kotabe and Helsen, 2020). The pattern of export of washing machines followed the same of that of refrigerators and by 1965 Italian exports account for about 10 to 15% of the market sales in measure theory of the Western European Nations. To know more take assistance from coursework help team of Arabessay

Use of it again in the appliance industry has been painful experience for traditional leaders like American or British or German and the smaller print organisations which implemented tariff protection. Whirlpool Corporation acquired France’s refrigerator plant in 1962 and also least the factory to French computers. The frigidaire company decided in 1967 to shut down refrigerator production in France. By competing with other European appliance manufacturers in Italy and organisations benefited from the national debt what does it take to reduce to wage rate as well as government is potentially useful stuff however the production of simple as well as a standardized products has also been equally important. According to fortune magazine the refrigerated started to look more and more like national preferences in terms of product design and it paved the way for international sheer line style.

Turnabout At Hoover

In order to compete with Italian invention various manufacturers tried adopting new approaches towards the one of the important examples in distillation is the introduction of new kind of automatic washing machine by Hoover Company which is a market leader. In accordance with cheap assignment help provider the previous automatic version of the company introduced in 1961 was primarily developed for the market of Britain. The new models of the company however featured the exclusive pulsator washing action followed by tilted and enamelled steel drum and the hot water acquired from the central hot water heater of the home. On the contrary maturity of European manufacturers including Italy and produce service develop the front loading as well as stumble action washing machine having stainless steel drum and the self contained water heater (Strange and Humphrey, 2019). In spite of the position of Hoover washing machines are gradually started declining in comparison to the other brands which followed the Italian design. However the next time when the management of Hoover washing machine started designing new line of product in 1965 is decided to look for single basic designs which will meet the needs of housewives in France followed by Germany as well as Scandinavia of UK. There was a committee incorporating representatives of the continent of subsidiary as well as the parent company who were worldwide corporation of New York spending large number of weeks in order to find a mutually acceptable specification over the new line of the product. The result was that when the new version went on sale in 1967 it was a front loading and trump election machine which was the closure in context with the continental design in comparison to the previous washing machines however it had provisions for the hot water filled as well as a normal distal drum on the models which was sold in UK region. Online assignment writer said standardized maturity of the primary design elements between the new machines. For the organisation was able to make significant savings over the development costs as well as tooling and the cost of unit production.

Other Economies

The potential economies standardization is not associated with product design decision. In various industries the packaging cost represents a significant aspect of overall cost of. In this place is standardization offers the possibility of savings. Charles William represents the case of food processor sales who prepared soups about Europe in case of food processors in 11 different packages. The company had the observation that he could achieve significant savings of cost along with the reduction of consumer confusion by packaging standardization. However another aspect of cost saving is advertising for major packaged goods manufacturers production of the elements like artwork for a film as well as various advertising materials accounted for millions of dollars cost. However difference in language reduces the degree of standardization which can be imposed and there are some common elements which can also be used to stop in this regard it can be illustrated that Pepsi cola bottling is done in 465 plants and also sold in more than 100 countries other than the USA. Only a fraction of its foreign advertising is done by films. According to the top marketing executives of the company and  do my essay makers the company found that is able to produce commercial films overseas in a specific market and if those are planned appropriately then it can account for great sales in the international market (Bradford, 2020). Nevertheless it is evident that the same strategy is not applicable for all the international markets. According to the estimates provided by the organisation that issued the cost of production of separate films for respective market will be 8 million dollars for every year. The above examples clearly articulate that the similar basic point is evident. It is standardization of product design for packaging as well as promotional materials which offers important economies to the multinational marketing agents. Even if these cost savings have been achieved at the expense of the lower sales in some markets, there should be some positive outcome of the profit as well.

Consistency With The Customers

Quite different from the viability of cost reduction there are some multinational organisations moving towards standardization for achievement of consistency in dealing with customers. This company executive perceive that consistency in product style as well as sales and customer service is eminent as is so in case of brand name and packaging and generally in the image projected to customers which is powerful means of increasing sales output. In case if all customers lived incommunicado behind respective national frontiers there is no point in working about the matter (Kotabe and Helsen, 2020). Only the diplomatic couriers as well as some cross border guards will be noticing inconsistency in product followed by service as well as from ocean. However in reality this course of action is not valid. The most visible kind of cross-border flow in international travel is exhibited by tourist and businessman applicable. Particularly in Europe with relatively high income level and short distance people visiting other countries reached flood proportions in 1960 and exhibited no sign of abating. Feel free to connect student assignment help in case you need information to write a tuition assignment.


Standardization in global marketing insurance that is specific goods or performance is the delivered in the same way by means of some set guidelines for which property is used in trading stock for the community as well as future marketing in order to allow greater liquidity followed by efficiency as well as cost reduction. Development of marketing strategies is a primary concern for multinational organisations. The generic decision is associated with marketing with the standardized approach where marketing practices will be informed and uniform throughout the globe for on the basis of a differentiated approach where the messages will be customised for specific markets. it’s typically offers significant cost benefit. Nevertheless if the message is working universally then the organisation need not make a great expenditure for development of customers marketing messages. However the organisation has the responsibility of adopting the language to the local markets and the conceptual premise of the messages should also remain constant. In this case, it requires a powerful brand theme as well as a global appeal in accompaniment with the standardized approach we should have the peoples of the world to share the same value proposition offered by the brand.

Reference List

Bradford, A., 2020. The Brussels effect: How the European Union rules the world. Oxford University Press, USA.

Brotspies, H. and Weinstein, A., 2019. Rethinking business segmentation: A conceptual model and strategic insights. Journal of strategic marketing27(2), pp.164-176.

Cihon, P., 2019. Standards for AI governance: international standards to enable global coordination in AI research & development. Future of Humanity Institute. University of Oxford.

De Mooij, M., 2018. Global marketing and advertising: Understanding cultural paradoxes. Sage.

He, J. and Wang, C.L., 2017. How global brands incorporating local cultural elements increase consumer purchase likelihood: An empirical study in China. International Marketing Review.

Kotabe, M.M. and Helsen, K., 2020. Global marketing management. John Wiley & Sons.

Lee, H.S. and Griffith, D.A., 2019. The balancing of country-based interaction orientation and marketing strategy implementation adaptation/standardization for profit growth in multinational corporations. Journal of International Marketing27(2), pp.22-37.

Leonidou, L.C., Katsikeas, C.S., Samiee, S. and Aykol, B., 2018. International marketing research: A state-of-the-art review and the way forward. Advances in global marketing, pp.3-33.

Rao-Nicholson, R. and Khan, Z., 2017. Standardization versus adaptation of global marketing strategies in emerging market cross-border acquisitions. International Marketing Review.

Ratten, V., 2017. Gender entrepreneurship and global marketing. Journal of Global Marketing30(3), pp.114-121.

Strange, R. and Humphrey, J., 2019. What lies between market and hierarchy? Insights from internalization theory and global value chain theory. Journal of International Business Studies50(8), pp.1401-1413.

Venaik, S. and Midgley, D.F., 2019. Archetypes of marketing mix standardization-adaptation in MNC subsidiaries: Fit and equifinality as complementary explanations of performance. European Journal of Marketing.

Westjohn, S.A. and Magnusson, P., 2017. Export performance: a focus on discretionary adaptation. Journal of International Marketing25(4), pp.70-88.

Williamson, B., 2021. Making markets through digital platforms: Pearson, edu-business, and the (e) valuation of higher education. Critical Studies in Education62(1), pp.50-66.

Yates, J. and Murphy, C.N., 2019. Engineering rules: global standard setting since 1880. JHU Press.

Explain The Energy Markets Economic Potential

Energy Markets’ Economic Potential


The energy market in the world is at the pace of revolution fueled up by innovation triggered by decarbonization. History says, with increase disposable income, the standard of living, consumption of energy has been increased drastically.  Despite the fact that how many years exhausted in making the whole world fully supplied with energy identified as countless. From medieval times to the 20th centuries reforms in energy supply have met mixed success in achieving greater demand-supply participation. However, in the past 8 years, participation of household and small businesses remains minimal. In 2017, a new market aggregate was introduced to provide FCAS services.

As per the IEA, 2020 report, global energy demand is expected to increase by 4.5% in 2020 supported by rebounding economic activities. A number of factors influence the global energy demand growth of renewable energy nuclear power in the tight spot of non-renewable sources application. Recently demand from non-renewable resources has decreased by 3% among them coal was the hardest hit energy accounted 4.4% drop known as the largest decline made in history. A regressive study is followed in this article to determine the potential energy marketing economic potential. 


The energy market contributes to economic growth in two ways- first energy is creating jobs and value by extracting energy and transforming the goods and service throughout the economy secondly underpin rest of the economies nearly referred as input of all goods and services. For instance, in 2009, the energy industry is accounted 4 % GDP of the USA (Yeager and Sharma, 2019). Some countries who are heavenly dependent on the energy export whose GDP is even higher. 

It’s been a long axiomatic that energy and economic growth is interlinked that means if energy demand increases, economic growth will be increased automatically. That’ been a case since the dawn of industrialization, But in the latest study, demand of the 55 types of energy from the 30 countries reflecting decoupling of energy demand and economic growth. In past decades energy demand and economic growth pronounced even bit higher since there is no region of the world that will be energy-hungry. Indeed energy landscape is poised to be a foundational change from now and 2050. 

Energy Industrialization- A Slow Pace

In the past two centuries, energy tracked with long economic growth and the economy has to lock it off to make the value it creates economies viable. At the same time, wealth creation depended on the burning times. During 18oo, energy come from the fallen biomass, like people burn the fallen tree, but at the end of the 18th century when the USA and Europe begun industrialized creation of enormous energy points up from distinct sources. Like it is said by the assignment writer biomass is highly inefficient as fuel because the entire energy embodied was lost at the time of burning. Before industrialization, energy loss could be bearable but the resulting wealth was not enormous. Similarly, when energy has been converted into electricity, its demand will increase by 1% since 1950 (IREA, 2020). 

In the 20th century, the demand for energy and economic growth both accelerated in different ways. GDP per capita in 1950 was twice that of 1900 in the USA and from that level of wealth creation, burning other forms of biomass would not be sufficient. 

Moving onwards it has been seen in many cases, living standards of people in the west and other advanced economies rising. Those dynamics continued to be expanded as china helped the global GDP rise by 3.7% by the year 2020(IEA, 2020). 

Accessing Economic Impact Of Increased Global Energy Demand

Energy is input to nearly every product and service also underpins the activities at each economic level. In this sense, the power sector continues to attract the majority of new investments. The relationship between the energy sector and the economy questioned a transformed energy system. As we have discussed energy sector contributing to GDP and employment for instance it predicts the national dialogue. 

However, when energy grows, proportionate investment in the energy sector will also get uplifted. In order to analyze the potential benefits the energy sector serves, investors identified to invest large sums of capital towards renewable energy development. Many assignment makers believed investment in the renewable sector has to be increased substantially.

As per IRENA. Org report investment in global renewable sources at REmap Case should be lied in between USD 500 billion to USD 750 billion till 2030. IRENA’s REthinking Energy: Renewable Energy and Climate Change reported investment in power sector reach to at least USD 400 billion in 2020 further needed to extend up to USD 600 billion in 2030. As the report estimated this projection in global power tends to support the investment by 1.8% (Price and Keppo, 2017). Meanwhile, when energy demand meets renewable targets, it would become easier to configure economic benefits for the environment as well. However, the persistent question still produces scepticism whether the potential investment yields satisfactory outcomes or not. Many experts believed the realizing observation of positive macroeconomic factors is equally important in eliminating the investment gap. Current trends show the investment will be likely to be the same as in 2030. Public funding stakeholder investment will behave the same as catalyst fueling investment needs of renewable sources.

How Economic Changes Affects The Global Energy Sector

The investment needs in the global energy sector not only fell when GDP rises even it can be traced at the sectoral level. The general deployment of renewable sources is likely to influence the other sectors but the benefits incur will be largely enjoyed by one produces goods and services at the global level. Few sectors like engineering, construction and manufacturing would likely be impacted largest as these sectors are completely dependent on volatile demand of goods and services investment. In fact, these sectors barely recovered from the financial crisis negatively being affected with covid invasion. If a large amount of investment is done in this sector, the economic output tends to be increased by 1.3% ( Guo, 2019).

The main energy drivers of the majority of Middle East countries are petroleum, coal, natural gases and renewable sources. Globally petroleum and other fuels are including biodiesel and biofuels most prevalent of energy being utilized at a massive level. 

No doubt the energy industry is an engine of growth that serves huge input for goods and services produced, but how energy is utilized differ country to country. The energy sector in economics drives employment transforms and spread goods and services. Jobs are instrumental to achieve the maximum output from the energy sector beyond those core-wide societal goals influenced with economic wide productivity, poverty level, improved sustainability in post conflicts societies. At the global level, online assignment help experts said, the continuous drop of non-renewable sources and their prices have had a serious impact energy sector. Despite this, in many Arabian countries, experts noticed the growing renewable sources seeing as a bright side of employment. But the employment generated from the renewable sector varies greatly like Solar Photovoltaic provides generate more jobs in comparison to the windmill. Currently, it accounted for 4 million jobs across the globe as per the 2014 census. 

World Energy OutLook

The energy sector is one of the largest capital consuming industries in the world. As per the 2011 world energy outlook., IEA, estimated US$ 38 trillion global energy investment will be needed to meet global energy demand in 2035. Also, the investment requirements per worker are higher than in any other sector. For instance sole in the USA, the investment requirement per worker is $ 176,000 in the past 10 years; meanwhile, the compensatory cost is US$101,000 per worker. Hence it can be said, energy sector companies invest at least 70% capital on the worker. Henceforth the flow of capital from the energy industry to at individual level creates additional jobs, increase GDP and tax revenues (Liko, Gentian. 2019). 

Source- IEA, 2020

Determining the impact of the supplier network on the energy sector is also crucial. Countries have energy handling skilled laborers retain benefits domestically. On the other side, the impact on those countries that could not produce skilled labor would be lower. 

Looking beyond energy sector expansion, employment in the border energy sector will be increased in both cases whether huge investment takes place renewable sources or Fossil fuel get disseminate. As per the world outlook, employment in fossil fuel has been decreasing steadily with lowering demand, on the other side, nuclear energy remains stable. 

A High Pattern Shift Of Global Share Into Renewable Energy

Globalization permits the exchange of goods and services at a wider range thereby act a key enabler for economic growth. The past two decades have eyewitness the increase in export in many developing countries including Middle East countries quadrupling 6.3 trillion in 1995 to USD 23.4 trillion in 2014(Brockway, 2019). 

Consequently, the global GDP has increased by 30% in 2014. Assignment help experts of ArabEssay have noticed world fuels exports have increased than any other traded products. An annual growth accounted in these years accounted 12%. Measure in US dollars, energy export was eight times higher in 2014 than in 1995. Henceforth it can be said, in 2014. Global energy trade reported 17% of the whole GDP of the world. Currently, most of the countries are not fuel importers, some countries are exporters benefitted greatly. Countries like CHINA, India, Japan spend 7% of their GDP to import fuel. In this case, a miracle could be happened if these countries make a route towards implementing an ample segment of renewable energy sources.

These values in magnitude are larger enough when compared with public health expenditure. Global opportunities of focusing on installation of renewable sources definitely benefitting all the economies similar enhance the employment rate and meeting the global energy demand will become much easier. 

Overall trade will be higher in 2030, than in today times. The analysis showed the impact of global dependency on renewable sources would be larger enough because every time it is assumed doubling the investment in the renewable sector and decreasing in non-renewable energy by 40 million $. The movement of global energy trade will be impacted largely by three factors defined below-

Reducing dependency on fossil fuels with varying impaction of fossil fuel exportation

The demand for goods and services has to be increased like investment in the renewable energy sector. The impact of demand for renewable energy will be resulted from growing or lowering GDP

Since the capital investment nature of energy is quite alluring, it is usually assumed GDP will be highly influenced by the expansion of the energy system. To know more about recent trends in global energy outlook, take instant assignment help  from ArabEssay


Energy is life of economy or a crucial component nearly for all the goods and services manufacturing industry. To the best compilation of recent trends in energy outlook, this report concluded when energy grow, proportionate investment in the energy sector will get uplifted also In order to analyze the potential benefits the energy sector serves, investors identified to invest large sums of capital towards renewable energy development. It is also defined in this study Jobs are instrumental to achieve the maximum output from the energy sector beyond those core wide societal goals influenced with economic wide productivity, poverty level, improved sustainability in post conflicts societies. Meanwhile, when energy demand meets with renewable targets, it would become easier to configure economic benefits for the environment as well.


Brockway, P.E., Owen, A., Brand-Correa, L.I. and Hardt, L., 2019. Estimation of global final-stage energy-return-on-investment for fossil fuels with comparison to renewable energy sources. Nature Energy, 4(7), pp.612-621.

Liko, Gentian. 2019. Impacts of Energy Sector on Economy, Social and Political Landscape, and Sustainable Development. 10.13140/RG.2.2.12626.91847.

Iea.2020. Annual average growth rates of electricity demand in selected regions, 2001-2020. Available at-

Price, J. and Keppo, I., 2017. Modelling to generate alternatives: A technique to explore uncertainty in energy-environment-economy models. Applied energy, 195, pp.356-369.

 Yeager.K. Energy and Economy. Available at-

Trygested.C Sharma. N. 2019. The decoupling of GDP and energy growth: A CEO guide. Available at-

World Economic Forum. 2020. Energy for Economic Growth. Available at-


IEA.2020. Electricity. Available at-

Guo, Z., Zhou, K., Zhang, C., Lu, X., Chen, W., & Yang, S. (2018). Residential electricity consumption behavior: Influencing factors, related theories and intervention strategies. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 81, 399-412.

Analyzing Marketing Challenges In Family-Owned Enterprise

Marketing Challenges In Family-Owned Enterprise


A family-owned business is the best way to improve the productivity of the organization. It also reduces the employment rate of the country as it runs generation-wise. The family members of the organization also feel comfortable while performing their business in the organization. The capital of the business also comes from the family members as they invest in the business to increase their sales and to expand the business through which the profit margin of the organization also increases. In the case of family, owners enterprise the family members also face huge problems as competition arises among the members and this reduces the motivational power of the members and due to that the business collapses. There are many members in the family and they have different decisions so the company faces problems as they don’t identify the best decisions. In many cases, the investors take over the company due to a lack of proper decisions within the workplace and the owner of the organization also faces problems due to huge competition within the workplace. It is also enumerated that in some cases the family members like to make arrange a marriage between the boys and girls of a different family to increase their business and to develop the revenue of the organization. It is also discussed that the organization in many cases receives less profit due to the competition among the daily members as they face huge problems while performing their business. The outside investors who don’t have a blood relationship with the family embers also take the business when the business receives less profit and the entire system of the organization gets affected. The fight among the members of the organization also arises in the death case of the main owner. The owner must make a nominee for the business so that no consequences occur among the family members. 


In recent research, it is identified that a maximum number of businesses are family businesses as it generates a huge rate of profit and provides huge support to the country, and increases the gross domestic product of the country. In the U.S the rate of a family business is 19% and it also reduces the unemployment rate of the country as it provides hue support to the candidates so that they can receive a proper job and maintain their standard of living appropriately. In many cases, the assignment help team noticed organization also faces huge problems as the family members fail to perform the business effectively. The entire system of the organization gets affected due to competition among the daily members.

The Challenges That The Family Owned Enterprise Faces Are:

The planning regarding the conversion: In this process, it is discussed what the business means to maintain an equal impression amongst every member of the organization. The owner must provide equal benefits and repayment to all the members of the organization so that the motivation of the employee does not get decrease and in this process eventually the workers are encouraged to perform their task effectively. The owner must not have the partiality problem between a blood relationship and with an outsider employee. Neither it will affect the performance of the organization as well as the motivation of the employee.

Leveraged by out of the goal of the directors: In this process, it is noticed that with the family business the ownership always remains 100 % to the owner to the same cases involves some investors from outside, so that the business can be expanded by increasing the rate of capital. In this process, 51 % share of business goes to the investor and 49% goes to the owner. but eventually due to the outsider investors sometimes the business faces a huge problem for the various discussion taken and in this process, the system of the business is affected.

Family-owned business:  According to university assignment help it has been noticed if a family have more than six children the owner faces a lot of problems have to provide the entire responsibility to their children but eventually this results in the system decoration and the performance of the organization gets decreased, henced the family must engage their children in a different part of the business. In this case, the owner faces a huge problem as all the children demand to become the owner of the same company and this affects the relationship among the family members. This also affects the entire system of the organization as the organization faces bankruptcy when the main owner dies. So, according to this case, the owner needs to maintain a legal procedure to maintain peace among the family members and the owner also needs to provide an equal share to the children so that they feel comfortable and maintain a good relationship with each other.

Regal: In this case, the main owner of the family died, generally the outsider investor or any other family member take advantage of taking the company. So a law has been introduced in their will be a certain age to run a business. Either the whole family of the business. The outside investors think of capturing the running business to receive a huge rate of profit. The outsider investors make the company in his name and this changes the owner of the business and affects the performance of the organization. So, the family members must maintain the business properly by performing in the business. 

The courage of the company: The owner of the business must be concerned about the company’s courage to maintain an equal position to their employees the owner must not different their employees so that their performances get affected. The owner must not provide extra opportunities to the family members as this reduces the motivational power of the non-family members and this increases the rate of lack of employees within the workplace. This makes the company get closed. The employees are the backbone of the organization so they need to maintain their employees appropriately to increase the performance of the organization. It is also enumerated that the management of the organization needs to provide proper support to the employees of the organization. The communication process within the workplace also needs to be maintained appropriately to provide proper information to the employees of the organization. So, that they can perform the tasks effectively.

Separation of business from pressure: This refers that the decision takes a very important role in case of so small business the family member work together with different decision, so the business decision must be taken in the workplace so that no problem arises among the family member. To know more take free assignment help from ArabEssay team

Generations relate problems: In the recent research, it is identified that the new generation is the ones who can serve the best idea to the company through which the company can improve its performance and can expand the business. This also increases the profit margin of the organization. It is also enumerated that this generation can also implement advanced technology within the workplace to develop the productivity of the organization. In some cases, the new generation needs to maintain active listening skills to know about the company clearly and can perform their tasks effectively, and can increase the rate of profit of the organization. The new generation must have a 25% idea regarding the business to perform the business effectively. So, the members must spend some time in the organization to know about the organization appropriately and increase the performance. It is also enumerated that the decisions within the workplace are the most essential element that the members need to maintain to improve the system of the organization.

Succession plan: The financial statement of the organization is the most essential element that the members of the organization need to maintain. In some cases, the new generations fail to perform the business properly as they don’t have proper knowledge regarding the business. The knowledge regarding the business is most needed as it supports the organization to improve its performance and it also supports expanding the business. The profit margin of the organization also increases. It is also explained that the organization needs to provide some training to the new generation to develop their skills and knowledge so that they can perform their assigned tasks effectively and can increase the performance of the organization. It is identified that 40% of family business survives but after second-generation 12% survives. So, family business gets closed very early due to competition among the family members.

According to the research, it is identified that proper knowledge regarding the organization develops the performance and productivity of the business. It is also enumerated that the financial statement of the organization also plays a very important role as it develops the profit margin of the organization. In a person’s, life family is the most essential thing so they need to be kept protected. In a family business, the relationship among the members gets deteriorated as they feel that the owner does not provide a proper place in the business, and due to this the competition arises among the daily members. The family must not get mix with business as it is different because due to money a person can do anything. As per essay writing help team owner of the organization also faces problems in the case of hiring the employees. The family members desire to have a good place within the workplace but the owner knows who is best suitable for the company and due to this the company also collapses and the profit margin of the organization gets affected. It also has an impact on the performance of the organization. The family members do not follow the policies and the procedures within the workplace and due to that, the entire system of the organization gets affected. The non-family members think that the owner provides better benefits to the family members and this reduces the motivation of the employees and due to this the performance and the productivity of the organization get affected. It is also discussed that the non-family members also demand good benefits from the company and this reduces the profit of the organization and also affects the motivational power of the employees. The employees who are not related to the family members of the owner get demotivated as they think that the opportunity within the organization is only for the family members and this decreases the working ability of the employees and due to this the company fails to perform the assigned tasks effectively. The culture of the organization is the most essential element that the organization needs to maintain to improve the performance of the workplace and to increase the profit margins. It is identified that family members do not follow the culture of the organization properly as they think they are from the family and this has a huge impact upon the entire system of the organization. The strategies and the ideas of the organization also get affected due to the lack of proper culture within the workplace. The owner of the organization needs to provide similar opportunities to every member of the organization to maintain their motivational power and this encourages them to provide their best to the organization while performing their assigned tasks. The communication system within the workplace needs to be maintained effectively so that the members of the organization receive relevant information regarding the company and this encourages them to perform their tasks appropriately. The training classes also need to be held for both the nonfamily and daily members to provide proper knowledge regarding the company. In the case of the family business, the capital is huge as every member of the organization invests in the company and this improves the performance of the organization. The organization needs to observe the day-to-day operation of the business to maintain the profit margin of the organization. In some cases, due to emotional and physical problems, the day-to-day operations of the family business get destroyed and this results in the closure of the business. The decision-making within the workplace needs to be maintained properly so that the perfomnace of the organization remains stable and this expands the business. In the family business, the owner of the business also needs to maintain a legal proceeding regarding who will manage the business after his/her death. In this case, the relationship among the family members remains stable otherwise every member demand share of the business and this affects the performance of the organization. The family business runs according to inheritance as the owners of the business change generation-wise. In the case of the family business, the decision is taken by the owners. The inheritance supports the business after the death of the original owner. The future planning regarding the business needs to be maintained effectively so that the business can identify the problems that may affect the entire system of the organization.

According to the research of term paper help, it is identified that a maximum number of family businesses do not survive in the marketplace due to a lack of knowledge of the candidates. So, the members must stay with the owner and learn some ideas regarding the business to run the business effectively and this may improve the performance of the organization. The financial planning of the business is the most essential thing as this increases the profit of the organization. The financial statement provides a clear view regarding the profit and loss of the business and this increases the productivity of the organization. The members of the organization need to provide the same incentives to develop their motivation and this improves the entire working system of the organization. A family-owned business is the best way to get a proper job and to improve the standard of living. According to the family business, it goes hand to hand with succession plan issues. The planning for the future supports the family business to survive even in difficult situations and earn a huge rate of profit. In recent research, it is identified that a maximum number of daily businesses do not survive after the death of the original owner and this reduces the profit margin of the organization. The financial planning of the organization also needs to be maintained appropriately so that the owner has the idea of where to use the resources and in how much amount. This improves the performance of the organization. The values of the business also need to be maintained effectively otherwise misunderstanding occurs and this has a huge impact upon the organization. The family business is run according to inheritance as the owners change generation-wise. The heirs of the owner become the owner of the business after the death of the original owner. The decisions in the business are also taken by the owner and the difference in the decisions affects the performance of the organization. Get free assistance or coursework help from ArabEssay team


It is concluded that in the above essay the information related to the challenges that the family-owned business faces while performing their tasks are provided. It is also enumerated that how the family-owned business mitigates the problems by implementing new ideas are also discussed in the above essay. The information related to the system according to which the family-owned business performs its tasks is also explained in the above-discussed essay. The family business is the best way to reduce the rate of unemployment in the countries and develop the performance of the country. In the above essay, the information related to how family business maintain their performance are also provided. It is also identified that a maximum number of businesses do not survive in difficult situations as the owner changes generation wise so the organization faces huge problems while performing their assigned tasks. It is also enumerated that the recommendation of how the family business can be developed is also provided in the above-discussed essay. According to the research, it is identified that the competition among the family members affects the entire business as the relationship among the members gets affected and due to that, the business gets closed. In some cases, the investors from outside take over the business when problems arise within the family business. The owner of the business needs to maintain a legal procedure that who will be the owner of the business after his/her death. This supports the business to maintain its performance.

Differences Between Business Laws in Governmental and Non-Governmental Organizations

Differences Between Business Laws in Governmental and Non-Governmental Organizations


The governmental laws and regulations on the businesses will require the companies for complying with the state, local, and federal statues, as well as regulations that have been administered by the legislative bodies those, are carried out by the regulatory agencies. As mentioned by Alshaerb et al. (2017), government laws, as well as regulations, are required for order maintaining, protecting rights as well as liberties with establishing standards as well as resolving the disputes. The business laws in the government organizations have to strictly follow the tax code, labor and employment law, antitrust laws, advertising, email marketing, environmental regulations, privacy, licensing and permits, insurances, sales tax collection and reporting the pay data. Law needs to be regulated based on the procedure of foundation, operation, connection, registration as well as cessation that will cause the operations of the organizations, both non-governmental and governmental accordingly. As opined by Buckingham and Külcür (2017), non-government organizations (NGO) have been created by legal persons who are not the government part and the funds of the NGO’s are raised mostly by the government. In this aspect, the need of maintaining a non-government position with eliminating the need for a government council is also required. NGO is established and is quite independent from government insights as well as is not a government entity part and is operated through the government program. Although non-government organizations are not a part of government directly, it receives funding from the government as well.

Ernazarov (2020) had stated that non-governmental organizations have been created by legal persons who are not part of the government. The purpose of law helps in establishing standards that help in the identification of behavior those have not been accepted within society. It helps maintaining order that is important for the civilized society and it helps resolving disputes that help to allow mitigation of issues that help to resolve disputes as well as comprises of both federal and state courts. The disputes have been resolved with using alternative methods of resolving resolution and it helps in using less numbers of formal methods like arbitration as well as mediation (Kościółek, 2019). The research aim is discussing and analyzing about the differences between the business laws present in the governmental organizations and non-governmental organizations. In this research study, the researcher discusses functionalities and purposes of business laws, government regulations both governmental and non-governmental organizations need to acknowledge. It also discusses about law on non-governmental organizations, law on governmental organizations and discussing governmental and non-governmental organizations.


Functionalities And Purposes Of Business Laws

The business laws in both governmental, as well as non-governmental organizations, are set for maintaining order, rights and liberties rights, the establishment of the standards, as well as resolving disputes. As mentioned by Kourula et al. (2019), one of the purposes of business laws is establishing standards that help in the identification of the behavior those have not been accepted within the society. Do my assignment suggested help controlling damage to the society is done as it is intolerable to the society. It also helps to maintain the order and law required for civilized society. It also helps to resolve disputes those allow in issue mitigation and that helps to resolve solutions as per the needs, views, values, and wants. The disputes are resolved through using an alternative way of resolving disputes and that will help in medication as well as arbitration. Lassa (2018) had opined that protection of rights and liberties helps to ensure allowing of each individual and that helps to allow constitutional rights with inclusion of speech and expression. The practice areas include statutes as well as regulations that have been related to the inclusion of individuals, families, businesses those include roles like consumers, citizens as well as workers. The businesses’ become globalized and the business laws comprise of conflicts and are also important to business owners for impacting the commerce both abroad and domestically. Business needs comprise of complies with similar kind of legal regulations as well.

As per the outlook of Li et al. (2018), legal basics comprise of court system structure, ethics, procedural law, and substantive law that have been foundational. The contract law with the inclusion of rights, drafts, the delegation of works, agreements, transactions, breaching of contracts as well as remedies required for the breaching. UCC (Uniform Commercial Code) has been the draft of contracting law comprised of governing sales. Intellectual property helps the inclusion of patents, as well as trademarks with preventing the ideas from profiting from the creations and ideas. According to the opinion of Sinclair (2018), tax law helps to determine diverse ways of implying taxes on businesses. Both antitrust, as well as competition, are being included. The employment law helps governing ways of interacting with the employees as well as improve rights as well as responsibilities of the people. It causes provision of minimum law to provide wages, improvement of workplace safety with using overtime rules. The environmental laws help striving mitigation of business impact by limiting the pollutions with establishing penalties regarding law violation. It also enhances governing of real and personal property as well.

Government Regulations Both Governmental And Non-Governmental Organizations Needs To Acknowledge

It helps to comply with the laws as well as regulations that help in compliances with the laws as well as regulations. As mentioned by Alshaerb et al. (2017), it helps to make the business faults and that will be violating the legal rights and that helps involving the employees. The consultation of for ensuring complying with the federal non-discrimination laws. It helps in the improvement of business growth as government regulations that has enormously expanded with the promotion of business complaints for impeding growth as well as efficacy. It helps protecting shareholders from the frauds and it comprises of EPA, FTC, SEC and FDA. As opined by Buckingham and Külcür (2017), EPA (The Environmental Protection Agency) regulates waste disposal with restrictions on greenhouse emissions’ as well as controlling the pollutants. The FTC (The Federal Trade Commission) is the business, which helps companies need to comply with the rules those have been complained for compromising and costly profits. FTC has been protecting patrons from anti-competitive and deceptive practices of the businesses. It helps include of monopolies with use of fraudulent advertising. Ernazarov (2020) had stated that SEC (The Securities and Exchange Commission) helps to regulate IPOs for ensuring full disclosures along with enforcing the rules governing the stock trading. The FDA (The Food and Drug Administration) helps provision of delays regarding approval as well as marketing the drugs. It comprises of high costs from market entering the system and that helps in criticizing delaying approvals that is life-threatening accordingly.

As mentioned by Kourula et al. (2019), and university assignment help said charities help in improving participation with the inclusion of meeting needs pertinent to disadvantaged groups and people. Empowerment helps understanding social, economic, and political factors for affecting the lives of the people and that helps increasing awareness of the power for controlling lives. The maximum involvement in terms of involvement by using the beneficiaries and NGOs have been the facilitators. Lassa (2018) had opined that is legally constitution helps in creating the legal and natural persons those help operating independently. NGO helps maintaining non-governmental status with excluding government representatives from the organizational membership. It comprises of legal forms like trusts, societies and not-for-profit companies. Applications for registration helps in eligibility for trust and made the applications that helps in electronically registration as well.

Law On Non-Governmental Organizations

As per the law associated with non-government organizations, it helps regulating the procedure regarding foundation, operation, cessation as well as cessation of business operations. As opined by Sternkopf and Mueller (2018), non-governmental organizations are non-profit organizations with the members for realizing common interests required for affirmation and realizing the public interests. Non-governmental foundations help pooling the resources as well as assets those help realizing charitable and conducting other activities required for public interest as well as importance. Non-governmental organization is associated with joining unions and also helps in providing relevant association to country as well as abroad. The association helps exercising the joints in the rightful way and envisaging the foundation articles. Wu et al. (2017) had stated that non-governmental organizations help comprising of data necessary that is used for undertaking activities required for registering as well as founding the same. The non-government organizations’ with performing economic business activities those have been obliged for setting the business activities. Registry to associations help in keeping and maintaining competent required for regulating contents as well as helps mannering keeping Registry. Competent body needs to performing registration and it helps meeting the business requirements for initiating the disputes.  

Yan et al. (2018) had stated that foreign non-governmental organizational helps in registering the competent ministry. It helps submitting the proof of registration regarding domicile country and it comprises of personal name as well as addresses. It helps in authorizing standardizing proxy and organizational representation. It helps in comprising of foreign organization regarding the Republic’s territory. The non-governmental organizations help in acquiring the legal entity from the Registry Day. Non-government organization helps performing economic business activities as per the performances of economic business activities that helps regulating requirements for performing the business activities. As mentioned by Yang et al. (2017), assignment writer in terms of allocation of the funds, it helps providing financial support to the NGOs. The commission will be appointing members and president along with appointing the 4-year period. The operational manners with improving the decision-making that helps regulating rules of procedure required for improving commission operation. The commission helps in executing fund allocation with contributing the realization of public interests. It helps in improving possibility along with possibilities for controlling integration and implementation of the project accordingly (Upcounsel, 2021).

Laws And Regulations Of Governmental Organizations

The federal business regulations, policies and laws impact on the business. As stated by Zukhriddinovich (2020), tax code is integrated into the organization that comprises of income tax, estimated tax, employment tax, and excise tax. Income tax is filed against the earning of income and is calculated once in each year. Estimated tax offers alternatives to pay the income tax and it helps making estimated payments of tax as per the income. Employment tax is about the companies to pay tax on having employees on the payroll. It includes federal income tax, social security and Medicare taxes. Excise tax includes payment of tax while companies purchase specified goods. According to the opinion of Buckingham and Külcür (2017) and online assignment help labor and employment law includes laws and regulations those employ the independent contractors and works regarding state labor and deferral laws. It includes labor laws like wages and hours, equal opportunity, workplace safety and health, unions, employee benefits security, and family as well as medical leaves. Wages and hours are determined by FLSA (Fair Labor Standards Act) that helps prescribing standards to overtime payment and wages. WHS includes OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration) as per the OSH Act. Employee benefit helps provision of offering welfare and pension benefits as per ERISA (Employee Retirement Income Security Act). FMLA (Family and Medical Leave Act) provides employees eligibility to improve job-related leaves for illnesses, birth or adoption procedures (Lassa, 2018).

As per the outlook of Kourula et al. (2019), antitrust laws comprise of 3rd party vendors those strive addressing following aspects like conspiring for fixing the market prices, discrimination of price, conspiring for boycotting and monopolization and conspiring allocating markets or patrons. Conspiring for price helps preserving the monopoly positions regarding acquisition to competitors and exclusion of the competitors regarding controlling the market prices. Advertising is about using testimonials those come with the additional regulations. Advertising is about avoiding the misleading patrons and those required for complying with labelling laws required for the patron products. It also helps in understanding rules to advertise specified products. Li et al. (2018) had mentioned that email marketing is about enlisting things under the CAN-SPAM Act those follow misleading and false headers, not using the deceptive headlines and indication of advertised messages. It also includes name and address of the businesses and showing the patrons for opting-out of emails and honoring opt-out requests. Environmental regulations help acquainting the diverse environmental laws of protection. It helps providing high resource pertinent to complying with the environmental laws.

As per the viewpoint of Sinclair (2018), privacy is another important law that states about winding-up employees for amassing tons of sensitive and important personal information regarding the employees. It comprises of rules, regulations and policies required for securing data and information. HIPAA (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act) prohibits releasing health data with providing no permission of the patients. Licensing and permits comprise of regulations that help amplification the state regulations those help understanding federal counterparts.  With no proper licensing, it will cause the businesses in revoking authorities for operating. Sternkopf and Mueller (2018) had mentioned that insurance is about hiring the employees those have been obliged for purchasing the workers based on the compensation insurances. It helps protecting the employees and also receive of medical care as well as compensations. It will help in defraying costs related to lawsuit that has been filed by injured workers at the workplace. Reporting pay data is about hiring employees irrespective of race, job category, gender, ethnicity, and equal opportunity to the employees. Collecting sales tax is the method that will cause collecting sales tax from the patrons and submitting the same. Get to know more about HIPAA, Law assignment help experts of Arabessay is ready to help you.

Governmental And Non-Governmental Organizations

The governmental and non-governmental organizations differ from one another in terms of nonprofit basics, overall basics, government ties, and nonprofits with government ties. As opined by Wu et al. (2017), in terms of nonprofit basics, NGOs help creating as well as operating required for contribution to the benefit to the public. It helps returning the revenues those go beyond pursuing goals for collecting the revenues regarding operating costs within the company. The core differences of nonprofits help funding for receiving tax exempting status. It helps avoidances of incoming taxes that help donating organization for claiming the tax deduction. Yan et al. (2018) had stated that the basics of NGO help in providing online resources for application to the companies on the basis of domestic missions. NGOs help in addressing inclusion of social and environmental development with human rights along with healthcare. The period helps expiring the last days of the period. It helps in authorizing making the decision based on termination of business operations with delivering body components decisions and that helps in standardization of proxy with representing the organizations. Property helps deleting the registry and that helps in humanitarian that is registered to non-governmental companies as well (Yang et al. 2017).

As opined by Alshaerb et al. (2017), a pecuniary fine is present within the amount and that helps to perform activities required for registration.  It helps using a name that is not even registered. Social companies as well as associations related to obliging the re-registering of associations from the day this law effectiveness. The social organizations use the citizens’ associations with using funds as well as endowments and that will help harmonizing provision to the law within prescribed details. It helps to avoid income taxes as well as those help to enable the things those help donation to the company for claiming the deduction of tax. According to the opinion of Upcounsel (2021), NGO basics provide resources and that helps in technically fitting profile. It helps to address the inclusion of economic development, environmental issues, improving human rights and healthcare. Government ties help to influence government with external efforts. It helps to employ lobbyists for advocating the national and state legislation. It helps to receive portions regarding getting funding from government sources. Buckingham and Külcür (2017) had opined that nonprofit organizations’ help is not the qualification of NGOs regarding operating connection within the government. Government agency helps to maintain control over the operational activities and organization. It helps to receive funding with state routine as well as that help governing the name with the state’s governor. It also helps in maintaining control over operation and organization as well. Get to know more about governmental and non-governmental business law differences essay writing help of ArabEssay.


The research aim is to discuss and analyzing about the differences between the business laws present in governmental organizations and non-governmental organizations. It is mentioned that the purpose of law helps in establishing standards that help in the identification of behavior those have not been accepted within society. Along with this, it had stated that the business laws in both governmental, as well as non-governmental organizations, are set for maintaining order, rights and liberties rights, the establishment of the standards, as well as resolving disputes. It is also stated that legal basics comprise of court system structure, ethics, with procedural law and substantive law those have been foundational. It had been stated that the business laws in the government organizations have to strictly follow the tax code, labor and employment law, antitrust laws, advertising, email marketing, environmental regulations, privacy, licensing and permits, insurances, sales tax collection, and reporting the pay data accordingly. It is also mentioned that non-governmental organizations are non-profit organizations with members for realizing common interests required for affirmation and realizing the public interests. Along with this, it is also stated that in terms of allocation of the funds, it helps to provide financial support to the NGOs as well.  

The governmental and non-governmental organizations differ from one another in terms of nonprofit basics, overall basics, government ties and nonprofits with government ties. The federal business regulations, policies, and laws impact the business. The tax code is integrated into the organization that comprises income tax, estimated tax, employment tax, and excise tax. The labor and employment law includes laws and regulations that employ independent contractors and works regarding state labor and deferral laws. It is opined those antitrust laws comprise of 3rd party vendors who strive to address the following aspects like conspiring for fixing the market prices, discrimination of price, conspiring for boycotting and monopolization, and conspiring to allocate markets or patrons. It is stated that email marketing is about enlisting things under the CAN-SPAM Act that follow misleading and false headers, not using deceptive headlines and indications of advertising messages as well.


Alshaerb, I.M.A., Al-Hila, A.A., Al Shobaki, M.J. and Abu Naser, S.S., 2017. Governance of Public Universities and Their Role in Promoting Partnership with Non-Governmental Institutions. International Journal of Engineering and Information Systems (IJEAIS)1(9), pp.214-238.

Buckingham, S. and Külcür, R., 2017. It’s not just the numbers: Challenging masculinist working practices in climate change decision-making in UK government and environmental non-governmental organizations. In Climate Change and Gender in Rich Countries (pp. 35-51). Routledge.

Ernazarov, D., 2020. ED Analysis of the Policy of the Republic of Uzbekistan Regarding International Non-governmental Organization. Архив научных исследований, 1(4).

Kościółek, S., 2019. Do sports clubs differ from other non-governmental organizations in terms of revenue sources? The case of Poland. Ekonomia i Prawo. Economics and Law, 18(3), pp.283-294.

Kourula, A., Moon, J., Salles-Djelic, M.L. and Wickert, C., 2019. New roles of government in the governance of business conduct: Implications for management and organizational research.

Lassa, J.A., 2018. Roles of non-government organizations in disaster risk reduction. In Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Natural Hazard Science.

Li, G., He, Q., Shao, S. and Cao, J., 2018. Environmental non-governmental organizations and urban environmental governance: Evidence from China. Journal of environmental management, 206, pp.1296-1307.

Sinclair N. 2018, NGO vs. Government Organizations, Retrieved from

Sternkopf, H. and Mueller, R.M., 2018, January. Doing good with data: Development of a maturity model for data literacy in non-governmental organizations. In Proceedings of the 51st Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences.

Upcounsel, 2021, Purposes and Functions of Business Law, Retrieved from

Wood, M. 2020, 11 Important Government Regulations on Business You Must Know Retrieved from

Wu, J., Chang, I.S., Yilihamu, Q. and Zhou, Y., 2017. Study on the practice of public participation in environmental impact assessment by environmental non-governmental organizations in China. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 74, pp.186-200.

Yan, X., Lin, H. and Clarke, A., 2018. Cross-sector social partnerships for social change: The roles of non-governmental organizations. Sustainability, 10(2), p.558.

Yang, Z., Liu, W., Sun, J. and Zhang, Y., 2017. Corporate environmental responsibility and environmental non-governmental organizations in China. Sustainability, 9(10), p.1756.

Zukhriddinovich, E.D., 2020. Analysis of the Policy of the Republic of Uzbekistan Regarding International Non-governmental Organization. Journal of Political Science and International Relations, 3(1), pp.9-15.

Risks And Benefits Associated With Advanced Mobile Banking Technology

Mobile Banking Technology 


Mobile banking is the way of making financial transactions with the support of the mobile. It is defied that mobile banking is the easiest process to send money abroad with full protection. Mobile banking has both advantages and disadvantages as it provides huge support to the customers so that they feel comfortable while sending their money abroad. Nowadays mobile banking is the most convenient way to transfer money to friends, merchants, and any other person with the support of the device. The banks provide a security code to the customers so that they can log in to the application with the help of that code. The client also needs to have a secure connection before utilizing the net banking application as many fraudulent activities occur while using net banking facilities in mobile phones. Nowadays the cybersecurity is well developed to protect the personal information of the clients properly so that they can perfom the tasks in mobile banking easily. The banks also charge a minimum amount for net banking and this saves the time of the customers and they feel safe while using the newt banking benefit. The connection needs to be private and secure so that no one can hack the personal information of the clients. The usage of the public networks while doing payments may result in thefts of money and this will affect the personal information of the clients. It provides various services to the customers with the help of mobile banking as the customers can perform everything by sitting at their home. This also supports the customers to receive the funds directly into their mobile numbers and this is the best way to save time and be casual while making payments. The banks providing satisfaction to the customers so that they feel safe while making the payments. 


The mobile banking technology supported the clients to open their accounts by sitting at their homes. It also provides support to the customers while making any fixed deposit or anything else as it also reveals the interest rates with the support of the mobiles. The customers can also purchase anything and can order cheque books and debit cards with the help of a mobile banking application. This also makes the customers comfortable and encourages them to use advanced mobile banking technology. According to the research, it is identified that a maximum number of clients reveal that it will be useful if the user of mobile banking applications is much easier. The mobile banking app also supports the customers to make payments easily. Many essay writer observed that till now many people are not relaying with mobile banking applications due to huge risks. Mobile banking also provides opportunities to the clients to know their account balance by entering into the application. The clients can also access everything in the application with the support of the OTP (one-time-password). This is the most credential thing that the customers need to protect. If this gets revealed the customer will face a huge problem and fraudulent activities will occur.

Importance Of Mobile Banking

The banks provide support to the businessman to save their time and perform the tasks appropriately with the support of mobile banking applications. This is best for small and medium scale businesses as they can transfer huge amounts of money to any other account easily with the help of mobile banking applications at zero cost. It provides huge satisfaction to the customers and makes them feel comfortable while making transfers. Financial transactions become very easy for people with the help of mobile banking applications. Mobile banking also supports the customers to apply for ATM cards and cheque books in the apps. This is also known as doorstep banking. The banks also provide the idea regarding the interest rates to the customers so that they feel comfortable while investing their money with the support of the bank. It is also defied that the indispensable usage of tablets and mobiles encouraged people to use mobile banking services. These services support the customers to make their payments easily and effectively. It is also defined that if the customers face any problems regarding mobile banking services they complain to the bank regarding it. They also provide ideas on how to develop the design of the application and improve the services. It is also identified that around 60% of people like to use mobile banking services to make their banking-related tasks easily and effectively. Nowadays the use of mobile banking services is important as well as dangerous. The people who use mobile banking services reveal that it is somewhat safe. According to the banks, and assignment help UAE it is enumerated that the services need to be used by installing particular applications of the bank. The customers must not use any type of browser while using mobile banking services.  

Advantages Of Mobile Banking

The advantages of mobile banking are enumerated below:

  • The mobile banking service is the best way to save time and make banking-related tasks more convenient. It is identified that a maximum number of people like to perform their tasks in mobile banking applications as they don’t need to go to the bank and stay in a line for their turn to come. The mobile banking application can be accessed 24*7 and this makes the clients comfortable using the mobile banking services. In this covid situation, the people can keep their health safe by not reaching into the banks and this reduces the time of the client. The customers can also perform everything related to the bank by staying at home and can send money to any corner of the world.
  • The online mobile banking application also supports the customers to optimize their money. It is enumerated that optimization helps the customers to think less about their money and this improves the spending of the customers. The spending of the customers also gets high due to online banking services as they don’t think about the money more. This also improves the lifestyle of the person easily. This also maintains a proper transaction in the bank of the customers. The customers also receive proper information from the application. They don’t have to call the branch to gather any information. The money of the customer also remains safe in online banking services. Get to know more about online banking and central banks protocols from plagiarism free assignment help Kuwait of ArabEssay
  • The security level in mobile banking apps is high nowadays. The customer can protect the data of the banking application by maintaining fingerprints and face locks. The bank provides a username and password to the customers but for more advanced protection the customers keep fingerprints and face lock to protect the data so that if the device gets lost then the person who will get it cannot open the device and cannot make any transactions. The banking applications also provide the location of the transaction to find the fraud easily. Nowadays the utilization of online banking services is increased highly. 55% of people utilize online banking services.
  • The benefit of paying IOUs is also there in online banking services. The customer can pay someone within some minutes if they know the name and email address, of the person. The online mobile banking application also provides safe and secure services to customers. The bank across the country has a link with Zelle through which the customers can easily send money to anyone by staying at their home. The bank also provides a refund if the money does not enter into the recipient bank./ this is the best way to keep the money safe. The routing and account number also support the customers to send money to anyone with the help of the application.
  • The control of spending also remains with the customers. As the customer has the remote control of his/her money. The customer can send money to someone whenever wishes and this saves them time and this the most convenient way to send money to someone. In some banks, the customers also get the facility of activating new debit or credit cards from the applications, and this supports the customers to do everything by staying at home. According to the research, it is identified that in this Covid situation the online banking services are the most effective way to perform the transactions.
  • Mobile banking services also provide tailored options to customers. As if they like to change the name of a dead person from the bank account they can easily apply in the applications and within some hours they can change the name. This is hassle-free. The mobile banking application also solves the problems related to money transaction and make the customer comfortable and encourages him to choose online banking services. The customers can also apply for a cheque book with the help of a mobile banking application. The customers can also create fixed deposit account with the help of online banking services.  
  • The clarity regarding the financial data is also provided to the customers. The customers get proper information regarding the transactions and they get to know where their money is going and this makes them alert regarding lower their expenses. The bank also maintains the information related to the applications which have the data of the customers and provides the details of the application where their bank details are given. So, that the customer remain alert and this protect the money of the customers and encourage them to utilize net banking services. The bank also provides proactive control to the consumers so that they know where their money is whether it is safe or not safe.

According to recent research conducted by essay writing help professional, it is identified that a maximum number of people like to use net banking services to save their time and to reduce the public gathering. As it is observed that in this pandemic situation people need to maintain social distancing so net banking s the better idea to maintain this as customers can perform their banking activities by staying at their home and can transfer money in any corner of the world. The banks also charge a nominal amount for transferring money and make this convenient so that every people can perform it. This also reduces the workload of the bank employees and they also feel comfortable while performing their tasks. The amount of money that is charged to the customers is very low and every person can afford it. Mobile banking is also a very popular method as through it the balance can be checked. The customers can watch their accounts 24*7 so there is a low rate of fraud. The customers also protect their accounts with face lock and pattern and with Id and password given from the bank. This encourages the customers to perform net banking as it is the easiest way to do banking activities.       

Risks Associated With Mobile Banking Technology

The risks associated with mobile banking technology are:

  • Fraudulent activities are the things that may occur while performing mobile banking. The customers may face problems when they lose the device the criminal gets access to the mobile banking of the customers and due to this, fraudulent activities occur.
  • The bank also charges a significant charge for the users who use mobile banking regularly and this also reduces the money of the customers and they face a huge problem.
  • Hackers can easily hack mobile devices and can access the mobile banking of customers and due to this many theft cases occurs. The hackers gain more by doing simple work as there are 4.5 million computers and 1.5 million mobile so it is not that difficult to hack the mobile devices.
  • Many fraud SMS also comes in the mobile phones and many cases, the customers perform the activities without thinking and it affects the bank balance of the customers and this reduces the money of the customers.
  • In the rural areas, the mobile banking application cannot be accessed as it requires a high internet connection and in those rural areas the connectivity is very low so the people cannot access the mobile banking application in that case.
  • The encryption security of the technology must be there to protect the personal information of the customers. The customers of the bank need to observe that whether the bank technology has encryption security or not. There is a huge chance of interception if there is no encryption security. According to assignment helper hackers can hack the device with the help of public wifi. The banks need to invest more money in encryption security technology. 
  • The viruses like trojans may affect the banking transaction of the customers. The trojan virus affects the full device and due to this, fraudulent activities occur while performing the banking transactions. The personal information of the customers is accessed by hackers and this increases the theft cases related to money.

It is also derived that mobile banking is the best way to make the banking services more convenient and support the customers to get banking at their doorsteps. It is also enumerated that mobile banking is the most secure way to perform banking activities and transfer money from any corner of the world. The bank website provides every detail to the customers so that they can access the banking through mobile phones. It also supports the customers to become cashless and this makes the digital country. Customers can utilize this service as it is the fastest way to perform financial transactions. The password and the user Id protect the personal data of the customers and make them feel comfortable while performing using mobile banking technology. It is also discussed that mobile banking has both pros and cons as it supports the customers to save their time and to get their banking services at their home. The banks also provide customer service to the customers to solve the problems which they face while performing mobile banking services. It is the most convenient way to perform financial transactions. The customers also get the messages related to the debit and credit of the money immediately so that the customers remain alert regarding their money. The banks also utilize various technologies to support the customers to get a proper connection while using the mobile banking technology as the lack in the network will affect the bank balance of the customers. According to recent research, it is identified that 61% of people in the world prefer mobile banking technology as they find it comfortable for them and they can transfer the money to any corner of the world. The customers also get the benefits of entering the number of the beneficiary and can send the money by clicking one option. It is also defined that mobile banking also increased the rate of fraud cases as the customer lose their money due to a huge number of criminals. So, the banks included cybersecurity to protect the data and stops criminals to make money from the customers without any reason. It is the best way to protect the money. The banks also included the encryption program within the server so that no one can take the personal information of the customers. You can get latest information on mobile banking and refined risks associated with it from instant assignment help ArabEssay.


It is concluded that in the above essay the information related to the risks and benefits of mobile banking technology is provided. The information related to how the customers face problems and how they can mitigate the problem is enumerated. It also includes the information based on the technologies that the banks utilize to protect the personal information of the customers are also discussed. Mobile banking technology also occurs in many fraud cases due to which the customers face huge problems regarding their money. It is identified that a maximum number of people like to perform mobile banking so that they can keep their money protected. The mobile banking technology also utilizes an encryption program to protect the money from getting breached. The banks also update their system to keep them protected every time and make the customers feel safe. In many cases, the fraud messages also come in the devices of the customers and due to this, the customers lose their money. It is also recommended that the customers need to observe whether the banks have encrypted services or not before operating mobile banking technology. It is also explained that the customers need to be alert always while making payments. This provides huge benefits as it supports the customers to take banks to their doorsteps.   

Translate »
Open chat
Welcome to Arab essay.
How can I help you?