Risk Management And Profitability In Banking

Risk Management


Banks tend to be one of the largest institutions across globe, which deal in finances. In the current era there are different types of banks available, providing different types of commercial services. The most common type of bank is the commercial bank which is involved in the day to day business activities with the individuals & corporate across the globe. Since their dealing is in daily finances, they are further subjected to a number of regulations. One of the many regulations is the requirement of the minimum capital by the banking organisations which must be kept for absorption of loss in case any adverse event happens (Coles, 2020).

The financial liberalization and elevation in the level of business and competition among the financial institutions for gaining market share has further made risk analysis an imperative part.The term risk management in the purview of banking does not imply that banks are not allowed to take risks. It rather sets regulations and safeguarded measures under the purview of risk, as much as the capital structure of the given banking institution might allow at the given point of time(Yaylali & Safakli, 2015).

Understanding Risk Management

Need of risk management in the financial sector has been quite a significant part. Furthermore with the Based II Accord, risk management has further seeped into being a core part n the banking sector. The financial liberalization and further elevation in the level of business and competition among the financial institutions for gaining market share has further made risk analysis an imperative part. There has been further expansion in the credit derivative market as well as there have been newer financial instruments dealt by banks for the changing business scenarios. The credit management has gone to become further complicated in past two decades. A result of these developments in the banking and financial sector, the introduction of risk evaluation has been quite a necessity(Bhati, S. et al, 2020).

Source: (Coles, 2020)

The first major step in the effective risk management process is the identification of the exposures of risks to which a business might be subjected to. The subsequent steps then include the measurement of extent of these financial risks and finally the control and mitigation measures which can be deployed under the purview controlling these risks. At the stage of control university assignment help said  mitigation of risk various regulations set under the purview of BASEL Accord take hold. A number of regulations are further taken into account (Zubairi & Ahson, 2015).

Purpose Of Risk Management In Banking Sector

The term risk management in the purview of banking does not imply that banks are not allowed to take risks. It rather sets regulations and safeguarded measures under the purview of risk, as much as the capital structure of the given banking institution might allow at the given point of time. Banking as nature of business itself deals with numerous risks and avoidance of risks at all would rather result in incurring losses under the purview of these establishments. Thus, main objectives of risk management under the sector of banking include improvement in the overall financial performance of the banks, and preventing the banks form incurring any major loss which it may not be able to accept or cover through its own capital(Srestha, 2017).

A banking business mostly requires a well organized and sustainable system of risk management which can further be adapted to various conditions as per the changing market situations, while also being in compliance with the bank’s structure at the same time along with the employment of its inactive capital into a yielding financial activity. The types of risks borne by the banking business have been expanding with changing financial instruments and changing business scenarios as well(Hallunovi & Berdo, 2018).

Common Risks Factors In Banking

Banks tend to invest in securities as all the market levels, thus there tend to be a variety of risks which they deal with on a day to day basis. These numerous risk can be condensed into two major categories of risks under the purview of a banking business. The following are two main categories:

Source: (Azad, 2018)

Market Risks: The market risks under the purview of a banking organisation are also the macro level risks which they deal in. These are unavoidable in nature, and thus can be a major cause of concern for the banking institutions. The market risks are defined as the risks of losses which occur due to changes in market scenarios of loss of variables in a market. The variables under this purview include changes in rate of exchange, changes in the interest rate risks and changes in the inflationary levels in an economy.

Credit Risk Factors: The external risks on the other hand include the credit risks which primarily tend to occur when the bank tends to take up a role of intermediary on the over the counter trade transactions. In case the counter party in such trade fails to honor its part of payment, the negative side of such risk comes to its play. In a day to day banking business, if a client fails to make interest payment or defaults in the payment of principle amount, the banks may have to bear serious repercussions. Under this purview derived by instant assignment help experts ,the management risks is the key takeaway in this business sector(CFI, 2021).

Operational Risk: these arise from within the institute, and usually tend to be controllable in nature.

Elements In A Sound Risk Management Process

The major elements under the purview of risk management tend to depend on situation of risk which is being dealt in. Since, each situation under the purview of risk can be unique; the risk management fundamentals tend to be adjustable as a case per case basis. The complexity as well as formality tends to vary widely amongst the institutions, each institution under this purview tends to create an assessment procedure for each risk that the organisation deal in, it further helps in evaluation of the performance over time as well.

Source: (Deloach, 2018)

The major elements include the level of accountability, separation of duties as well as clear lines of the authority under the purview of organisational management. The duties of those particularly involved in the purview of management of risk as well as internal control of the banking institution form the major element of this overall process. These elements, along with other time tested elements are involved in the risk management techniques of the organisation.

Process Of Risk Management

The process of risk management involves several stages which must be encountered by a banking institution in to present an analysed reporting of the overall determined risks which are evaluated by the use of appropriate methods of risk measurement. Under this process the regulatory as well as supervisory authorities set up methods of measurements of risk, which the institution might be exposed to in its daily course of business. Once the appropriate risks have been identified, the risk exposures of the business properly need to be recorded. These recorded risks are further formed into risk policies under the purview of the business, which are implemented by the senior management(Acevedo, 2020).

Risk Management In Banks & BASEL Accords

As per the Basel II accord, the banks must function under three major pillars. These pillars are formed keeping the major market risks in focus, which are projected to a bank. Cheap essay help writers of ArabEssay derived to ensure that banks are able to manage their risks, the three pillars laid under this accord include:

  • Capital adequacy requirements
  • Supervisory review
  • Market discipline

The pillar of capital adequacy approach requires for standardised approach as well as internal ratings based approach for the organisation. The method of ‘risk-weighted assets’ is deployed which lays provisions for banks to maintain a minimum level of capital adequacy ratio. Under the standardised approach,banks deploy use of ratings from external sources including credit assessment institutions, for internal approach, banks deploy methods to calculate the probability of default in case of a bank’s debtor (Princeton, 2021).

The other pillar allocates for supervisory review. The supervisory review lays to effective supervision in internal capital adequacy of a bank and a need for the capital structure under the purview of the bank. Supervision is meant to ensure appropriate allocation of capital and intervention at decision making process to ensure appropriate risk levels (Okarimia, 2016). Get to know more about banking supervision from online assignment help experts of ArabEssay.

And finally the pillar of market discipline implies to evaluate the market risks and disclosure of essential market information under the purview of placement of the capital.Furthermore, Basel III Accord has come into purview, providing further revised definitions and techniques of risk management under the purview of banking institutions (Onyiriuba, 2016).

Risk Management And Capital Adequacy

The term ‘capital adequacy’ in an organisation reflects the statutory level of minimum capital reserve which might be needed by a financial institution or investment firm, or the banking institution, to have this available is a minimum level of required capital under the purview of risk weighed assets as well as current liabilities under the purview of the business. In other words, capital adequacy ratio, abbreviated as CAR tends to measure the amount of capital a bank must retain in comparison to the risk taken up by the bank. There are two types of CAR under the purview; the tier 1 CAR persists ensuring that institution can absorb a reasonable amount of loss without any failure to cease its trading, while the tier 2 represents the situations when institution can sustain loss in event of the liquidation. Thus tier 2 presents less protection to depositors as against the tier 1(Maverick, 2018 ).

Even though banks operating under the excessive capital in hand do not present much of problems in terms of risk, it can be problematic for the investors. Assignment writer made a remark on A capital lying idle with the bank is actually a deal of loss for the business. This further results in in a reduced equity and less profitability to banks than it can actually earn(Bhati, S. et al, 2020).

The relationship with risk management to that of capital adequacy is that the potential of risk must be taken in the proportion of capital available with the bank. However, if the larger part of capital is kept idle it would result in reduced profitability and low return on equity. But at the same time, the level of economic capital in bank must be adequate enough to meet the level and amount of losses. Given the point of time, there is also a need to distinguish between the unexpected losses and the expected losses. The part of capital which must cover the unexpected losses arising from the risk is called a venture capital. The capital adequacy ratio in a bank signifies if the credit rating is high, the probability of the bankruptcy of the institution becomes largely low (Yaylali & Safakli, 2015).

Risk Management & Profitability In Banking

Banks tend to be one of the largest institutions across globe, which deal in finances. In the current era there are different types of banks available, providing different types of commercial services. The most common type of bank is the commercial bank which is involved in the day to day business activities with the individuals & corporate across the globe. Since their dealing is in daily finances, they are further subjected to a number of regulations. One of the many regulations is the requirement of the minimum capital by the banking organisations which must be kept for absorption of loss in case any adverse event happens(Maverick, 2018 ).

Going back in history of banking, in the decade of 1970, some disruptions in banking occurred; which ended up affecting the international financial markets. Then, the Supervisory office of the German Federal Banking ended up withdrawing the license of Bankhaus Hersatt, and due to unsettled trade with Bankhaus Hersatt, banks outside Germany had to take up deep losses. Around the same time, New York’s Franklin National Bank also shut it door owing to huge foreign exchange losses. A number of other small localised banking events were also registered, which further led to contributing to the banking regulations reforms under BASEL committee, beginning with central banks of G10 nations(Li & Zou, 2015).

But this did not end the bank & financial disruptions in the coming decades. Latin American debt crisis in the 1980 particularly caught attention of the Basel committee. Further Asian Financial crisis of 1997 and most prominent global financial crisis of 2008 witnessed some stark crash and failure in the banking systems. As per dissertation help professional Creating a domino effect and interconnections of banks due to international trade ended up resulting in global level bank crisis (Okarimia, 2016).

Profitability Of Commercial Banks

The terms profitability under the purview of banking indicates its capacity to be able to either carry risk or increase their capital, indicating their measure of management and competitiveness in the sector. There are internal and external control leading to its profitability and methods like DuPoint Model, return on equity and return on assets help in analyzing the profitability under the purview of the business(Yaylali & Safakli, 2015).


Under the purview of study it can be understood that capital adequacy ratio (CAR) plays a significant role in the risk management. However there is not direct affect of it linking to the return on equity (ROE). Rightlythough the idle capital kept under the purview of CAR generates no profits, but given the major risk bearing events under the purview of banks, it cannot be denied that it tends to provide as a major cushion in the case of events leading to losses. So, in the simplest form, it can be ascertained that risk management may not have a contribution in direct profitability of the banks, it definitely does contribute in prevention of losses, or provides as cover from losses that occur due to interconnected or international financial events(Yaylali & Safakli, 2015). At last, if you have any doubt in regards of financial events, take assistance from plagiarism free assignment help of ArabEssay.


The above study has aimed at discovering the relation between the risk management procedure and subsequent affect of profitability in a banking institution.

The study has established that credit management has been becoming quite complicated in recent decades and risk management has become an imperative part of financial institutions to deal with several credit, market and operational risks. The BASEL accord and its provisions which were developed seeing numerous bank crises particularly in the decades of 1970 and 1980 tend to provide some regulations to take a blow in case of occurrence of risk.

In this purview keeping a capital adequacy ratio may lead to some idle capital which tends to lower the return on equity. However, it has been established that risk management may not have a contribution in direct profitability of the banks, it definitely does contribute in prevention of losses, or provides as cover from losses that occur due to interconnected or international financial events.


Acevedo, L. (2020). Risk Management Techniques. Retrieved from https://smallbusiness.chron.com/design-audit-policy-plan-18449.html

Azad, S. (2018). Operational Risk: Banking Perspective. Retrieved from https://www.daily-sun.com/arcprint/details/338633/Operational-Risk:-Banking-Perspective/2018-09-26

Bhati, S. et al. (2020). IMPACT OF RISK MANAGEMENT ON PROFITABILITY OF BANKS. Malaysian E Commerce Journal .

CFI. (2021). Managing Risks in Investment Banking. Retrieved from https://corporatefinanceinstitute.com/resources/knowledge/strategy/managing-risks-in-investment-banking/

Coles, D. (2020). How to identify, analyse and manage the risks your business faces. Retrieved from https://www.dandmmanagementaccountants.co.uk/risk-management

Deloach, J. (2018). Key Elements of the Risk Management Process. Retrieved from https://www.corporatecomplianceinsights.com/key-elements-of-the-risk-management-process/

Hallunovi, A., & Berdo, M. (2018). The Relationship between Risk Management and Profitability of Commercial Banks in Albania. Asian Themes in Social Sciences Research .

Li, F., & Zou, Y. (2015). The Impact of Credit Risk Management on Profitability of Commercial Banks: A Study of Europe. Retrieved from http://www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:743402/FULLTEXT01.pdf

Maverick, J. (2018 ). Why Is the Capital Adequacy Ratio Important to Shareholders? Retrieved from https://www.investopedia.com/ask/answers/042915/why-capital-adequacy-ratio-important-shareholders.asp

Okarimia, J. (2016). James Okarimia – Basel II Pillar1 Analytics : Covering Credit, Market,and Operational Risks. Retrieved from https://www.slideshare.net/JAMESOKARIMIA/james-okarimia-basel-ii-pillar1-analytics-covering-credit-marketand-operational-risks

Onyiriuba, L. (2016). Applications of Basel Accords in Emerging Economies. Emerging Market Bank Lending and Credit Risk Control .

Princeton. (2021). Basel II. Retrieved from https://www.princeton.edu/~markus/teaching/Eco467/10Lecture/Basel2_last.pdf

Srestha, R. (2017). The Impact of Credit Risk Management on Profitability: Evidence from Nepalese Commercial Banks. SSRN Open Journal .

Yaylali, P., & Safakli, O. (2015). Risk Management in the Banking Sector: Case of TRNC. International Journal of Academic Research in Economics and Management Sciences .


Overview Of Change Management

Change Management


The purpose of this study is to understand the extent of impact the process of change management lays on the overall success of an organisation.

The term change signifies the ever changing environment of human. Any organisation which operates cannot escape the changes that perpetually keep occurring in the aspect of the global markets. Thus changes in the process of the organisations become essential. However, if these are not managed, it can be quite disruptive, as the impact may tend to vary at different levels, it is essential that management approach for the said changes is applied(Domingues, A. et al , 2017).

Change management is an approach of implementing the needed in changes in the purview of the business in the organisation. The management of these changes ensures that needed changes whether adaptive or transformational in nature, are deployed in stages so that elements of the organisation are able to align and adopt with the needed changes.

Rational Of The Study

The study lays an understanding of the change management, the reasons it might be needed in an organisation and the responses in sense of internal management which are received under this.essay writer defines the approaches and impact of change management, highlights the way it tends to contribute to the success of organisation.

Understanding Change Management

The term change management tends to refer to the methodology and mannerisms in which an organisation describes as well as implements the changes in both the internal and external processes under its purview(Stouten, Rousseau, & DeCremer, 2018). It is a collective approach which tends to include the process of preparing and supporting the teams or individuals within the purview of the organisation, to understand and implement the needed change in the organisation. While minor changes are a part of continuous improvement for the organisation, and tend to be a perpetual part of the growth of a business, it is the major and significant changes under the purview of the organisation which can tend to be challenging(Domingues, A. et al , 2017).

Source: (Heathfield, 2021)

The term change management refers to movement of one state of way organisation functions, to another way of functioning. The state of change accompanies changes in the goals, changes in structure of the organisation, changes in the culture, etc. (Sang, J. et al, 2019). Thus the change in the purview of the organisation can be used in several attributes, whichever applies in the given circumstances. Significant changes in the structure of the organisation, whether internal or external, tend to require co-operation at various levels, and induce involvement of different independent entities in the purview of the organisation. This becomes essential in developing a structural approach for the function of organisation and ensuresthe transit would be of benefit to organisation, ensuring the mitigation of disruption at the same time(Stouten, Rousseau, & DeCremer, 2018).

It becomes necessary that the needed change is clearly defined. It has often been reasoned that changes seem to usually fail the reasons of human. There is often requirement of an effective plan in the organisation, to control the flow of change, the way it affects the people at work, the stages in which it is implemented, and whether or not the desired outcome is achieved(Sang, J. et al, 2019). To know more about change management, take instant assistance from online assignment help UAE.

Why Does The Need Of Change Management Arise?

Changes majorly are driven by the circumstances in which the organisation tends to be. These could be ranging from the changing market scenarios, changing external environment and macro factors affecting the business, or the changes in the internal processes and adaptation to technology. No matter whatever is the reason, the overall objective in the change management tends to be leading the organisation to be ready for the future state of the business which can be strikingly different from the current state of the business as well. Thus, given in this perspective, the scope as well as scale of the change being implemented may vary, depending on the need(Millar, Hind, & Magala, 2012).

At times change can be limited to a particular department of a business, say changes in the way marketing department functions or the operations, etc. Or it may be covering the whole organisation, affecting all of its departments at personnel in it, at the same time(Stobierski, 2020). It must also be understood that changes in the purview of organisation are not always controllable. At times, the external circumstances change so rapidly that organisations end of having either of two options. These options can be either evolve with the needed change or succumb to the market pressure. In either of the two scenarios, it is a given fact that the function of the organisation would definitely not be the same before the said change happened(Cherwell, 2021).

Since changes, if not at all managed, can be quite disruptive, as the impact may tend to vary at different levels, it is essential that management approach for the said changes is applied. Assignment writer explained the strategies of change management help in having a direction as well as a clear set purpose of all the activities which are taken in the purview of the change management. This helps the process of change to be less disruptive and more beneficial in the purview of the organisation(Stobierski, 2020).

Response To Change In Organisation

Organisation changes, particularly those that are quite substantial in nature, could be quite difficult to adapt. It entails the changes in the processes of the work, changes in organisational culture and conditions of employee engagement. While some personnel may find it easy to get along with the proposed changes, other may tend to reflect some resistance on their part, for the said changes. Thus the responses to change in the organisation can be of mixed nature. While some may show acceptance on their part, other may reflect some resistance as well(Ahmed, 2020).

It is during the time of such changes that role of leaders can become quite imperative in promoting an atmosphere of an overall psychological safety, which may further assist the resisting individuals to take a leap of faith in the overall process of transition(Domingues, A. et al , 2017). It is believed that resistance is the first and normal response to change as humans have psychological tendency to fear the unforeseen. In the purview of organisation, it is often met with lack of productivity, unwanted and uncivil activities to discourage changes, etc. In such conditions, open communication and majorly effective communication becomes quite the needed strategy in the process, aiming at managing the responses of the people dealing with the process(Heathfield, 2021).

Approaches To Change

There are two major approaches under the purview of change management in a business. The changes in this purview can either be adaptive changes or the transformational changes. The adaptive changes tend to be small and minor incremental changes which the organisations tend to adapt for addressing the needs of evolving over the span of time(Al-Nahyan, M. et al , 2017). Typically, these changes tend to be in the form of minor modifications or the adjustments by managerial authorities in tuning the daily flow of activities and implementing them over the strategies of the business. Under the purview of this process, the leadership might bring minute changes like addition, subtraction or refining in the some processes of the business. A simple example in this aspect can be upgrading of the operating systems of computers in organisation to windows 10 from windows 8(Stobierski, 2020).

On the other hand, transformational changes tend to be much larger in terms of scale and scope in comparison to adaptive changes. Essay writing help professional said These can involve a major shift in the strategy as well as mission in the company, its business process, its structure, people or the organisational performance. It is due to the changes required in these processes; there is need of substantial amount of time, resources, and energy to ensure the needed changes and a positive outcome(Rosenbaum, More, & Steane, 2018). Even though transformational changes can be voluntary, brought about by organisation’s vision, these changes often tend to be in response due to any external forces or emergence of either new disruptive technology or a new competitor, which can lead to impacting the business, which tend to compel the organisation to adapt to the change. For example, adaptation of customer relationship management software (CRM) or enterprise resource planning (or ERP) software is a transformational change for an organisation(Stobierski, 2020).

Positive Impact Of Change Management On The Organisation

It must be understood that organisation does not change, but with change management in purview, its processes and people may change. However, change management in itself must be a guarded and properly handled process in order to have a successful implementation. The intended impact of the change management on the organisation is deemed to be positive in nature. As discussed above, changes can be developmental or transitional in nature. In any way, the change intends the survival and profitability of the corporation not just in the current era, but in the long run as well(Rosenbaum, More, & Steane, 2018).

Whether it is planned or emergent, changes are bound to occur in the market demand or product processes. Further with the fast paced technological advancements, the changes in the circumstances of business and organisation have been becoming more rapid. Thus, change management lays a positive impact on the function of the organisation through leading it towards a future oriented business strategy, which would help the organisation have not only a survival in the long run but also the profitability as well(Ahmad, M. et al , 2017).

The process of change management helps the organisation to have a smooth transition from its current process to the next. A smooth transition helps the organisation and its people to have a chance of adapting to the changes step by step, without laying adverse affects on the productivity of the organisation or its consumer. Thus it positively helps an organisation to implement the change, elevate productivity, profitability and consumer satisfaction, which ensuring adaptation of the organisation as per the needed market changes at the same time(Lozano, Ceulemans, & Seatter, 2015).

However, sudden implementations can be chaotic, less sensitive to balance and might end up lowering the productivity as against the desired rise in the productivity levels. If the process of change management is not handled with care, there may be adverse effects as well, which may include the decline of productivity for a longer scale and for an unreasonable duration. In this, the foremost thing to handle is the willingness of managers. If the managerial authority itself is not convinced for the changes being implemented, it is highly unlikely that they would encourage their subordinates to cooperate in the same. Therefore university assignment help predicted Such negative impact would be evident on the productivity, customer service, and subsequently on the profitability of the business(Anyieni & Gidion, 2016).

Change Management & Success Of Organisation

Change Management has shown evidence in the success of organisation in terms of growth and adaptation to change. This adaptation to change is essential for business to adapt the future changes and let the employees have an understanding of the shift which is occurring in the work place(Stouten, Rousseau, & DeCremer, 2018). Without management of the change, the transition of the organisation could end up being expensive and tremulous in terms of both resources as well as time. Thus the properly managed changes can be helpful in boosting the morale of employees, who are the essence of the success of company. This also helps the employees to adapt and develop the competent skills which might be needed under the purview of changes being implemented in the organisation(Aitken & Treuer, 2020).

As discussed in the above section, changes fall in the adaption spectrum or transformational spectrum, or somewhere in the middle of the both. The overall motive the change management aims at it’s the growth and success of the organisation, in alignment to the everchanging external environment of business(Cherwell, 2021).

Proper change management also contributes in boosting the morale of employees in the organisation. Be it leaders, managers or executive, these people form the backbone of the business, in terms of the service they deliver. Proper change management ensures that these people in the organisation are successfully involved in the transition and are actively involved in the overall transition of the business. This helps the organisation to maintain and ensure a constant state of evolution as well as facilitate those periods when the business seems to be going through the scenario of change. In such situations, it is essential that workers remain motivated and accepting to introduction of new technology or new procedures brought about by the change(Al-Nahyan, M. et al , 2017).

Thus in case of changes, an effective change management is crucial for the success of the organisation. It helps the organisation to evolve and grow as per the changing needs of the business, and align the business resources in the support to the process of change. A successfully managed change management also manages the cost of the overall change implemented; ensuring that even during in the process of adaptation of change, the viability and profitability of the organisation is maintained. Change is permanent, and for surviving in the long run, adapting t the change is essential. The process of change management ensures the same in the success of organisation(Evans, 2020). Get to know more about process of change management from ArabEssay assignment help Dubai experts.


The study has aimed at understanding the extent of impact the process of change management lays on the overall success of an organisation.

It has been discovered that change management tends to refer to the methodology and mannerisms in which an organisation describes as well as implements the changes in both the internal and external processes under its purview. The study has established that it is needed to ensure that changes in organisation, whether adaptive or transformational, are smoothly implemented. It has also been discovered that effective change management becomes essential for the success of the organisation, at it ensures the survival and profitability of the business in the long run. A successfully managed change management process helps the organisation to evolve and grow as per the changing needs of the business, and align the business resources in the support to the process of change.


Ahmad, M. et al . (2017). Trust in management, communication and organisational commitment: Factors influencing readiness for change management in organisation. AIP Conference Proceedings . [Retrieved on: 6th March 2020]

Ahmed, A. (2020). Employee Reactions to Organizational Change. Retrieved from https://smallbusiness.chron.com/employee-reactions-organizational-change-17732.html [Retrieved on: 6th March 2020]

Aitken, K., & Treuer, K. (2020). Leadership behaviours that foster organisational identification during change. Journal of Organizational Change Management . [Retrieved on: 6th March 2020]

Al-Nahyan, M. et al . (2017). Change management through leadership: the mediating role of organizational culture. International Journal of Organizational Analysis . [Retrieved on: 6th March 2020]

Anyieni, A., & Gidion, O. (2016). Organisational Change: A Critical Review of the Literature. Research Gate . [Retrieved on: 6th March 2020]

Cherwell. (2021). The Essential Guide to ITIL Change Management. Retrieved from https://www.cherwell.com/it-service-management/library/essential-guides/essential-guide-to-itil-change-management/ [Retrieved on: 6th March 2020]

Domingues, A. et al . (2017). Sustainability reporting in public sector organisations: Exploring the relation between the reporting process and organisational change management for sustainability. pp. 292-301. [Retrieved on: 6th March 2020]

Evans, T. (2020). Improving evidence quality for organisational change management through open science. Journal of Organizational Change Management . [Retrieved on: 6th March 2020]

Heathfield, S. (2021). Communication in Change Management. Retrieved from https://www.thebalancecareers.com/communication-in-change-management-1917805 [Retrieved on: 6th March 2020]

Lozano, R., Ceulemans, K., & Seatter, C. (2015). Teaching organisational change management for sustainability: designing and delivering a course at the University of Leeds to better prepare future sustainability change agents. Journal of Cleaner Production , pp. 205-215. [Retrieved on: 6th March 2020]

Millar, C., Hind, P., & Magala, S. (2012). Sustainability and the need for change: organisational change and transformational vision. Journal of Organizational Change Management . [Retrieved on: 6th March 2020]

Rosenbaum, D., More, E., & Steane, P. (2018). Planned organisational change management: Forward to the past? An exploratory literature review. Journal of Organizational Change Management . [Retrieved on: 6th March 2020]

Sang, J. et al. (2019). Success factors influencing requirements change management process in global software development. Journal of Computer Languages , pp. 112-130. [Retrieved on: 6th March 2020]

Stobierski, T. (2020). ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE MANAGEMENT: WHAT IT IS & WHY IT’S IMPORTANT. Retrieved from Harvard Business School : https://online.hbs.edu/blog/post/organizational-change-management [Retrieved on: 6th March 2020]

Stouten, J., Rousseau, D., & DeCremer, D. (2018). Successful Organizational Change: Integrating the Management Practice and Scholarly Literatures. Academy of Management Annals . [Retrieved on: 6th March 2020]

Effect Of Reward System On Employee Performance

Employee Performance


The following essay will provide the information related to the effect which the performance of the employees have due to the reward system and how this reduces the productivity of the organization will also be enumerated in the below-discussed essay. It will also provide the information regarding how the organization supports the employees to improve their skills and knowledge to achieve objectives will also be provided in the below-discussed essay. The below-discussed essay will also provide knowledge regarding the reward program which reduces the performance of the organization and reduces the profit margin of the organization. The reward program is the only way to develop the motivation of the employees and encourage them to provide their best to the organization while performing the assigned tasks in the workplace. The reward program also improves the abilities of the employees and due to that, the company gets the benefits of achieving the focused objectives effectively. The motivation of the employees is the most effective way to expand the business. It will also portray the information regarding the theory which develops the performance of the employees and encourage them to perform the tasks appropriately within the workplace. The reward program also needs to be maintained effectively by the management of the organization to fulfill the needs of the employees. The essay will also provide information regarding the types of reward programs and the types of motivation of the employees. It will also provide the calculation of the number of employees who desire to have a reward in the workplace. The following information will also provide information regarding the types of reward function which mitigates the problems within the workplace.

Effect Of Reward Systems On Employee Performance

A Reward system is the most effective way to improve the performance of the employees and to increase the productivity of the organization. An effective reward system also supports the organization to expand its business. The reward system provides appreciation to the high performers and provides incentives to the low performers so that they can provide their best to the organization while performing the assigned tasks effectively. This system also increases the job satisfaction of the employees and increases their motivational power so that they can perform the assigned tasks effectively within the workplace to support the organization to achieve the focused objectives (Darma, & Supriyanto, 2017). The reward system is provided to the employees who fulfill the needs of the management. This system also develops the behavior of the employees. The reward system is also derived as the technical tool of motivation, retention, and attraction. The reward system derives as the incentives which are provided to the employees according to their performance in the organization. This also develops the motivational power of the employees and encourages them to provide their best to the organization while performing the assigned tasks. Performance is the fundamental aspect of every company’s success and productivity. The reward system also monitors the performance of the employees and this support in identifying the strength and weakness of the employees and provides the proper knowledge to improve mitigate their weakness. The retaining qualified workforce and attract new talents within the workplace so that it could support the organization to improve its productivity. Different reward systems are demanded by the employees (Martono, Khoiruddin, & Wulansari, 2018). Many employees demand cash as a reward and many are there who demand house, car, and paid holidays as a reward. Plagiarism Free Assignment Help experts also derived that an efficient reward system combines both monetary and non monetary rewards and incentives to satisfy the demands of the employees. It is also identified that the reward system is of two types intrinsic reward and extrinsic reward system. This system increases the commitment and motivation of the employees and due to that the productivity of the organization also increases and this also supports the organization to expand its business and to maximize the rate of profit. Similarly, the reward system also affects the performance of the employees as the employees only perform their work effectively for the reward and this affects the organizational structure. This also reduces the profit of the organization as the functioning of the organization gets affected. It is also derived that the reward system also affects the skills of the employees as they focus on achieving the reward without performing the tasks full of dedication (Beltrán-Martín, & Bou-Llusar, 2018). The reward system only improves the performance of the low performers as it also increases the motivational power of the low performer. The reward system affects the high performers as it does not focus on the high performers. The areas of operation of the organization need to be maintained efficiently and effectively so that the organization can achieve the focused organizational objectives. The strategies are the most essential element which the organization needs to implement to improve performance.

The reward system is of two types intrinsic reward system and an extrinsic reward system. The career and the professional development of the employees are the most important element which the organization needs to maintain while assigning the task to the employees. Many employees demand an extrinsic reward system and many demand for an intrinsic reward system. The reward system also creates valuable thinking upon the employees as they feel comfortable because they thought that they are appreciated by the organization (PAAIS, & PATTIRUHU, 2020). The maximization of the performance is the main issue of the organization. The machines and the equipment which the organization utilizes provide the fixed output. The expansion of the business fully depends upon the performance of the employees in the workplace. The performance of the employees can be improved by providing an effective reward function to the employees who increases the motivational power of the employees. The output from the employees supports the organization to expand their business and to maximize the rate of profit. The organization mainly focuses on the demand of the employees as they know that they will provide their hard work if they perform the best to the organization. The commitment of the employees regarding the goals and objectives of the organization is the main element that the organization needed to develop the performance and to earn a huge rate of profit (Eliyana, & Ma’arif, 2019). According to Essay Writing Help professional experts the success of the organization is not only dependent upon the quality of the hum resource it also depends upon the reward function of the organization. The employees of the organization are mainly focused due to reward as the reward system encourages them to provide their best to the organization. It is also derived that the organization needs to fulfill the requirement of the employees effectively to achieve the organizational objectives and to maximize the rate of profit. It is also derived that the employees mainly perform their tasks effectively only if the reward is provided to the employees properly. Many employees work after observing the opportunities of the reward system. This affects the performance of the organization and also reduces the productivity of the organization. Many employees are there who do not put their additional effect to achieve the organizational objectives. A Reward system is the most effective way to improve the performance of the employees and to increase the productivity of the organization. An effective reward system also supports the organization to expand its business. The reward system provides appreciation to the high performers and provides incentives to the low performers so that they can provide their best to the organization while performing the assigned tasks effectively (Jaworski, Ravichandran, Karpinski, & Singh, 2018). This system also increases the job satisfaction of the employees and increases their motivational power so that they can perform the assigned tasks effectively within the workplace to support the organization to achieve the focused objectives. So, it affects the performance of the organization and this also reduces the effectiveness of the organization. The competitive advantage of the organization also reduces if the employees fail to provide additional effort to the organization. In many cases, the employees leave the organization after identifying the reward program of other companies and this also affects the productivity of that particular organization as they fail to execute the tasks effectively and fail to achieve the focused objectives of the organization (Sanyal, & Hisam, 2018). The employee connects the work behavior with the reward system as they think that they achieve reward when they perform their best to the organization and provide a better result to the organization. So Online Assignment Help derived the following relationship  defined as-

Figure1: Expectancy Theory (Lloyd, & Mertens, 2018)

The above diagram derives from the expectancy theory which supports the employees to improve their motivation and provide the best to the organization while performing their assigned tasks within the workplace. It discusses that expectancy, instrumentality, and valence increase the motivation of the employees and encourages them to provide their best while performing the tasks. The reward function makes the employees attracted towards the organization and supports the organization to achieve the focused organizational goals.

It is also derived by Assignment Maker, reward function in many cases affects the organizational structure as the relationship among the members of the organization also gets affected as the competition reach higher and due to that the working procedure of the organization gets deteriorated. It is also identified that a poor reward program also leads to high labor turnover and reduces the productivity of the organization. It also fails to increase the motivational power of the employees and due to that the employees of the company and join other company and due to this, the competition in the market reaches higher (Demircioglu, 2018). The lack of improved motivational power also reduces the performance of the organization as the employees fail to provide their best while performing the tasks. The reward system mainly encourages the employees to provide their best to the organization while performing the assigned tasks within the workplace. According to Assignment Writer a poor reward system also implements a laissez-faire attitude among the employees and this results in a reduction of profit of the organization. Performance is the main element that the organization needs to maintain so that they can expand their business and can maximize the rate of profit. The reward system gains both the interest of the employer and the employee as it provides opportunities to both the employees and the employers. It also helps to maintain a better relationship among them so that they can perform the assigned tasks effectively and can expand the business of the organization (Martini, Rahyuda, Sintaasih, & Piartrini, 2018). A poor reward system also increases the production costs and reduces the performance of the organization and due to that the rate of profit of the organization also gets affected. It is also derived that the performance of the organization mainly depends upon how much opportunity the organization provides to the employees. The opportunities fulfill the demand of the employees and encourage them to provide their best to the organization and achieve the focused objectives of the organization. The reward system parallel increased the attention of the employees and the employee and this improved the productivity of the organization and supported the organization to expand its business and to compete with the other companies (Apalia, 2017). The companies also focus to implement the collective bragging reward system upon the cohesiveness of the employees so that they feel comfortable in performing their tasks effectively. It is also derived that the employee’s perform the work only if there is a reward to achieve. This also reduces the productivity of the organization.

Figure 2: Reward on employee performance (Nnaji-Ihedinmah, & Egbunike, 2021)

The reward system of the organization must be maintained by observing the ways the jobs are designed, the leadership style, and the types of tracks related to careers available in the organization. The employees also achieve the opportunity of performance-related pay (PRP) which improves the motivational power of the employees and encourages them to perform the tasks effectively which has good incentives. This affects the other parts of the job and as a result, the productivity of the organization gets affected. The system of PRP also affects the creativity of the employees as they fail to provide their best in the parts which do not have any reward system. The theory of expectancy is the one that explains that the expectation and perception of the employees encourage the employee to perform the assigned tasks effectively and support the organization to achieve the focused objectives. Expectancy, valence, and instrumentality increase the motivation of the employees. Case Study Assignment professional said,The intrinsic motivation of the employees is to achieve the reward system by appreciation or by gaining promotion within the workplace. This develops the recognition of the individual and this increases the motivational power of that particular individual. An effective reward system is mostly needed by the organization to increase the rate of production through which the company can earn a huge rate of profit. The reward must be implemented within the workplace by observing the condition of the work as it may cause implications upon the performance of the organization and stop the organization from earning a huge rate of profit. The overall strategic plan must be observed while making the reward function as it also improves the behavior of the employees and improves their skills and knowledge so that they can perform their tasks effectively within the workplace (Luu, 2018). The reward within the workplace also needs to be related to the performance as this encourages the employees to perform the tasks efficiently and supports the organization to achieve the focused objectives. The reward system needs to be implemented within the workplace and make it work in the workplace to know the variable and deviations of the reward system and identify what problems are arising due to that reward system and what steps can be applied to mitigate the problems. It is also derived that the organization mainly provides a reward to improve the motivation of the employees as they will feel comfortable in performing the tasks. It is derived from the information that reward is the most effective element to achieve the organizational objectives and to earn huge profits. It also improves the productivity of the organization. The motivation of the employees is the most important element which the management of the organization needs to maintain to attain the organizational objectives. The reward system also maintains teamwork within the workplace as it supports the employer and the employee to maintain a better communication system within the workplace to improve the performance of the organization (Minasyan, Midova, Danko, & Balakhanova, 2017). According to the calculation, it has been derived that 90% of employees in the workplace perform their tasks effectively for the reward so a proper valuation of the reward can encourage the employees to perform the tasks effectively and support the organization to attain the organizational goals. The win-win position also needs to be implemented within the workplace to maintain the workforce cooperatively. The employer and the employee need to maintain collaboration to attain the goals effectively. The strategic ideas need to be specific so that the employees can perform their tasks according to the objective. Job satisfaction is the main element that the organization needs to focus on so that the productivity of the organization can be improved (Ashton, Ridley, Edwards, & Thornton, 2018). In many cases, the reward function demotivates the employees as they fail to provide their best to the organization. It is also identified that the expectancy theory needs to be maintained effectively within the workplace to fulfill the demand of the employees appropriately. To know more, you can also contact to ArabEssay MBA assignment help experts anytime.


It is concluded that the above essay provided the information related to the effect of the reward system on the performance of the employees. It is derived that the reward system in many cases causes implications within the workplace. The working culture of the organization gets affected due to the reward system. The employees fail to provide their best in every corner. They only perform the tasks effectively which provides them a reward. In many cases, the relationship among the employees of the organization also gets affected due to the reward system in the workplace. Many employees are there who desire to have rewards in the sense of cash, incentives. Similarly, many employees desire to have the reward in the sense of recognition and appreciation. The above-discussed essay will also provide information regarding how the performance of the employees improves with the support of a reward system. The employees mainly focus on achieving the best objectives which will improve their future. So, the management of the organization needs to maintain the reward system effectively to achieve the attention of the employees and improve their motivational power so that they feel comfortable in performing their tasks effectively within the workplace. It is also discussed in the above essay that the expectancy theory is the best way to fulfill the requirements of the employees and encourage them to provide their best to the organization while performing the assigned tasks. It also discussed that the management of the organization needs to maintain the reward system within the workplace according to the objective of the organization. So, it will make the employees feel comfortable while performing the assigned tasks. It also provided information regarding how the employees and the employers are maintained in the workplace to achieve the organizational objectives and to expand the business. 


Apalia, E. A. (2017). Effects of discipline management on employee performance in an organization: The case of county education office human resource department, Turkana County. International Academic Journal of Human Resource and Business Administration, 2(3), 1-18.

Ashton, B. J., Ridley, A. R., Edwards, E. K., & Thornton, A. (2018). Cognitive performance is linked to group size and affects fitness in Australian magpies. Nature, 554(7692), 364-367.

Beltrán-Martín, I., & Bou-Llusar, J. C. (2018). Examining the intermediate role of employee abilities, motivation, and opportunities to participate in the relationship between HR bundles and employee performance. BRQ Business Research Quarterly, 21(2), 99-110.

Darma, P. S., & Supriyanto, A. S. (2017). The effect of compensation on satisfaction and employee performance. Management and Economics Journal (MEC-J), 1(1).

Demircioglu, M. A. (2018). Examining the effects of social media use on job satisfaction in the Australian public service: Testing self-determination theory. Public Performance & Management Review, 41(2), 300-327.

Eliyana, A., & Ma’arif, S. (2019). Job satisfaction and organizational commitment affect in the transformational leadership towards employee performance. European Research on Management and Business Economics, 25(3), 144-150.

Jaworski, C., Ravichandran, S., Karpinski, A. C., & Singh, S. (2018). The effects of training satisfaction, employee benefits, and incentives on part-time employees’ commitment. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 74, 1-12.

Lloyd, R., & Mertens, D. (2018). Expecting more out of expectancy theory: History urges inclusion of the social context. International Management Review, 14(1), 28-43.)

Luu, T. T. (2018). Employees’ green recovery performance: the roles of green HR practices and serving culture. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 26(8), 1308-1324.

Martini, I. A. O., Rahyuda, I. K., Sintaasih, D. K., & Piartrini, P. S. (2018). The influence of competency on employee performance through organizational commitment dimension. IOSR Journal of Business and Management (IOSR-JBM), 20(2), 29-37.

Martono, S., Khoiruddin, M., & Wulansari, N. A. (2018). Remuneration reward management system as a driven factor of employee performance. International Journal of Business & Society, 19.

Minasyan, E. T., Midova, V. O., Danko, O. A., & Balakhanova, D. K. (2017). Implementing New Performance Pay-Based Schemes in Higher Educational Institutions. European Journal of Contemporary Education, 6(4), 748-756.

Nnaji-Ihedinmah, N., & Egbunike, F. (2021). Effect of Rewards on Employee Performance in Organizations: A Study of Selected Commercial Banks in Awka Metropolis. Semanticscholar.org. Retrieved 2 March 2021, from https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Effect-of-Rewards-on-Employee-Performance-in-A-of-Nnaji-Ihedinmah-Egbunike/7a1892bc6273426dad29bdce9e47d1276a6adc6b.

PAAIS, M., & PATTIRUHU, J. R. (2020). Effect of motivation, leadership, and organizational culture on satisfaction and employee performance. The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics, and Business, 7(8), 577-588.

Sanyal, S., & Hisam, M. W. (2018). The impact of teamwork on work performance of employees: A study of faculty members in Dhofar University. IOSR Journal of Business and Management, 20(3), 15-22.

The Importance Of Corporate Governance

Corporate Governance

During 1997, when the economic crisis of Asian Pacific continents was sabotaging trade, that was the first time when corporate governance came into the picture.

James D Wolfensohn, former president of World Bank asserted a statement for the first time and highlighted the significance of corporate governance in today’s era. According to his perspective- corporate governance is as much as important to the world economy as a government for any country.

At the same time, Simms and Gregory said, the prevailing interest of policymakers in corporate governance as well as people interest in reducing corruption primarily grounded a belief a locative efficiency in free markets (Mohammad, 2004).

By considering the above two statements, we can derive with globalization a removal of obstacles for a free flow of capital among markets is as much as significant as understanding corporate governance. Corporate governance will help in exposing financial disclosure and regulate the capital market. But before going deep to apprehend the importance of corporate governance, let’s dive deeper to explore the actual meaning of corporate governance.

What Is Corporate Governance?

Corporate governance is recognized as framework defines business relationship exists among stakeholders, a board of directors, management team and other key shareholders. It covers both institutional and social aspects of a business and influences how business objective should be achieved (Arche, 2020). This doesn’t stop here, it also assessed and monitored risks and define internal performance is optimized.

In an opinion of essay writer in Saham, corporate governance covers a combination of laws, listing rules, voluntary practices and regulations enables a corporation to attract social stability, generate profits to meet both obligations and expectation of society.

It can be also inferred no matter what is the definition of corporate governance holds it is aiming to assure investors that means corporate assets put inappropriate and profitable way.

In regards to business success, Millestin report has suggested maximizing long term shareholders encourages investment of capitals to be put in a most efficient way. In the report, it is also concluded corporation don’t always succeed by continually neglecting shareholders and stakeholders expectation. Henceforth as per most successful business giants, corporate governance perspective is critical to establish the right balance between shareholder expectation and appropriately investing capital.

Objectives Of Corporate Governance

As defined by assignment help Saiq experts, the foremost objective of corporate governance is to make an efficient management team and strengthening the trust and confidence of investors by ensuring business commitments to attain higher growth.

  • Developing a better and building most effective management teams
  • Developing applicable criteria for performing certain tasks
  • Creating a balance between economic and social goals
  • Ensuring perspective for workplace management
  • Developing a business perspective to maintain high values
  • Developing a healthy business environment via emphasizing on democratic values and reforming social values
  • It aims in determining composition and level of accountability
  • It aims to bring a high level of trust and satisfaction to customers
  • Adopting transparent procedure and practices within the business culture
  • Keep forward relevant disclosure stakeholders should aware of
  • Regular monitoring and controlling the affairs company is having

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Corporate Governance And Role Of Independent Directors

The significance of independent directors and corporate governance always been in the history of a family of businesses. At the Sixth Asian Invitational Conference on Family Business, Rajender Brewal managing director of Hybrid Seeds Company Private Limited said, growth aspiration containing a couple of challenges lead to the formation of the formal governance framework.  He underpins corporate governance cocoons practically should stay in every sphere of a company’s management to eliminate the effects of poor action follow-ups. 

In accordance with Gupta, 2017 corporate governance should defines the clear roles and responsibility between managers and business owners that will further release the ultimate responsibility of the board of directors to manage the company. 

Source- Travel Agent Survey Foundation, 2017

In a research survey conducted by Travel Agent Survey Foundation in 2017, more than 53% of travel professionals have said, their company used to conduct corporate governance social responsibility program when it comes to aware employee about their roles and corporate governance sustainability. They already take myriads of factors such as travel expenses preferences and convenience to reduce and control the harmful effects of travelling on the environment. They also said this helps the company to make operation transparent and correct distribution of job responsibility.

Importance Of Corporate Governance

In a market economy, government and private companies raise funds from the investors notably combining these firms to conduct business. As opined by essay helper , their core objective is the same as to seek maximum profits. 

But with good corporate governance, there could be difficult in pursing in profit-making strategies both in terms of private and social welfare. 

Many experts have accepted, corporate governance emerges automatically as transformation ownership takes place. The development of good corporate governance sometimes referred to as an ideal model of institution-building ingredients for accountable and transparent society. Lets’ move ahead to uncover some critical dimension of corporate governance critically affecting business growth-

  • Corporate governance ensures the efficiency of operation in which business operates and make sure optimal utilization of goods and services. With effective corporate governance equity and debt, capital will move to that corporation who is enough capable to utilize them. It is identified by Gregor and Simmons, this also helps to explore maturity or scare resources
  • Effective corporate governance enables the company to attract a low cost of capital via improving foreign investment. Mohammad, 2004 revealed when ownership separated from controls, managers own self-interest may lead to misusage of resources for instance pursuit of overarching risk projects
  • For any company success, it is essential to meet all the rules and regulation and expectation of societies during policymaking. 
  • If corporate governance is competent, it gives insights managers to hold reasonable roles and responsibilities, thus improves access to lower capital cost. It also helps in reducing corruption in business entities and making it difficult to root in the business sphere.

Corporate Governance Problems

Since corporation governance adoption by 29 OECD members countries in 1999, companies have been facing some of the key challenges due to Eurasia corporate governance(Nestor et.al, 2010). As such the most popular corporate governance problems follow as-

  • As corporate governance is based on complex concepts, it should be able to handle some dimensions such as risk management, finance, economic, ethics and law. But sometimes the lack of trust, disclosure and empowerment create a base of ultimate corruption in an organization (Muir, 2016). 
  • Sometimes differentiating roles create conflicts of interest when an officer tries to control over another employee. When conflicts of interest presents, it can deteriorate the trust level of shareholders
  • From top to bottom level, it would be difficult for an organization to look over each level of labor division 
  • Sometimes a lack of transparency exposes companies to other retailing industry. 
  • It would be certainly much more difficult to follow ethical rules when companies are aiming to attain maximum profits.

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In this blog, we have shared several definitions of corporate governance via considering journal and experts point of view. There we have analyzed and come up with the most effective corporate governance definition i.e. corporate governance is recognized as framework defines business relationship exists among stakeholders, a board of directors, management team and other key shareholders. We have further analyzed key concepts of corporate governance principle out of which the most prominent one is creating a balance between economic and social goals. Then after we have deduced some key importance of corporate governance such as Effective corporate governance Enables Company to attract a low cost of capital, At last, we addressed challenges company’s face during making high profits, for instance, accountable each business operation from top to bottom level.


Arche.P(2020).Corporate governance. Available at-https://www.businessmanagementideas.com/company-management/corporate-governance-company-management/corporate-governance/21145

Gupta.N(2017). Corporate Governance, Business Growth and the Role of Independent Directors. Available at-


Mohamad, S. (2004). The importance of effective corporate governance. Available at SSRN 617101.


Nestor, S., Yasui, T., & Guy, M. L. (2000). The Relevance of Corporate Governance to Eurasian Transition Economies. Proceedings of USAID/OECD Eurasian Roundtable on Corporate Governance, Kiev. October.

Newsdesk(2017). Stats: 16 Percent Of Companies Incentivize Business Travelers To Stay In Sustainable HotelsAvailable at-


Cash Flow Statement And Its Nature

Cash Flow Statement

Financial statements expose the ability of an organization to generate cash and its equivalents and certain timing and limits. Information on cash flows is useful in providing and assessing the capability of a company to utilize those cash reserve company posses.

In general term a cash flow statements used in conjunctions with financial statements for evaluating change in net financial assets, an entity is posing as well its ability to affect the timing of cash flow (Kousenidis, 2006).

The cash flow statements are known to enhance comparability of performances of a different organization. This happens because it eliminates different accounting policies for the same events and transactions. It also helps in examining the existing relationship between profitability and net cash flows impacting charging prices.

Cash And Cash Equivalents

Many Essay writer in Saham have said, a cash flow statements provides a brief analysis of cash changes and cash equivalents, there to understand about cash flow statement one should know actual meaning of cash and cash equivalents.


Cash of a company comprises hand on hand deposits, liquid investments which can be a later deposit and withdraw on prior notice. For instance, a term deposit with a bank is known as a demand deposit. But if bank charges on premature withdraw of cash, then this term deposit is said to be demand deposit (Subramanyam, 2014).

Cash Equivalents

They are short term and highly liquid investment which are ready to be converted and subject to insignificant changes in risk values (Paolone, 2020).

Cash equivalents in a company held for the short term commitments rather investment purpose. A debt investment in securities also classified as cash equivalents when it is based on short term maturity.

Bank Overdrafts

Bank borrowings generally classified as financial activities. But bank overdrafts repayable on demand are included in cash flow management as it encompasses both components of cash and cash equivalents.

According to online assignment help experts, cash flow are categorized into three activities

Cash flow originDescription
Operating ActivitiesA principle revenue company generated including transaction of events determines net income
Investing activitiesThese activities are related to capital expenditure, intercorporate investments and acquisitions
Financial ActivitiesIt is related to transactions changing capital structure(Sayari & Mugan,2013

Nature Of Cash Flow From Investing Activities

Investing activities are referred to as long term assets and other investments but not cash equivalents.

Cash flow from investment represents the extent via expenditure have been made for the resources and used to generate future income and net profits.

As defined by accounting assignment helper, cash flow from investing activities are-

  • Cash payment to gain fixed assets
  • Cash receipt from fixed assets and sales a
  • Cash payment to get an equity
  • Cash receipts from future contracts and swap contracts except cash arises from the trading purpose

Nature Of Cash From Financial Activities

Financial activities are those activities that are resulted from a change in size and composition attributing borrowing and equity of the firm.

Its separation expansion helps the company in claiming future cash from the providers.

An example financial activities are-

  • Cash proceeding from shares issuing or other equity
  • Cash payment to the owners 
  • Cash proceeding to issues loans, notes, bonds and mortgages
  • Cash repayment of the amount borrowed
  • Cash payments by a lessee

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The article started with defining cash flow statement, cash and cash equivalents. On that note, it can be deduced a cash flow statements used in conjunctions with financial statements for evaluating change in net financial assets. On the other side, cash equivalents are short term and highly liquid investment which are ready to be converted into assets. In the next section, we have determined the cash flow nature of operating, financial and investing activities. Each one plays a distinct role and suggested information. For instance, Cash flow from investment activities represent the extent via expenditure has been made or cash flow from financial activities helps the company in claiming future cash from the providers.


Bradbury, M. (2011). Direct or indirect cash flow statements?. Australian Accounting Review, 21(2), 124-130.

Kousenidis, D. V. (2006). A free cash flow version of the cash flow statement: a note. Managerial finance, 32(8), 645-653.

Paolone, F. (2020). Concluding Remarks: The Importance of Cash Flow Statement. In Accounting, Cash Flow and Value Relevance (pp. 69-81). Springer, Cham.

Sayari, N., & Mugan, F. N. C. S. (2013). Cash flow statement as an evidence for financial distress. Universal Journal of Accounting and Finance, 1(3), 95-103.

Subramanyam, K. R. (2014). Financial statement analysis. McGraw Hill Education.

Homeopathic Medicines – The Placebo Effect

Homeopathic Medicines

There is commonly heard the belief that Homeopathy is similar to the placebo effect that has evolved over period. Placebo effects appear as a neurological phenomenon including genetic, behavior, learning and anxiety(Teixeira et.al, 2010). 

In the past few years, scientists have rejected or dismissed homeopathy appears to be sugar pills which are not more than empty calories. In a conventional medical trial, the lancet has published “the clinical effects of homeopathy are termed as placebo effects”. However, the role of both Homeopathy and Placebo is concerning healing(Sharma, 2016).

Given in the recent insights in the changes of placebo meaning considering the placebo effect is polymorphic and its mechanism and attacking within the body is quite different. 

This report is aiming to expand the relationship between the homoeopathy and placebo and explaining how placebo trait was first considered as a primary response during the evolutionary period.


In a laymen term, the placebo effect is defined as positive changes patients incurred after successive medical treatments because of psychological responsible for being treated. In other we can say, improvement will be visualized because patient himself wants to get cured.

Through the years, researchers have assumed placebo effects are linked with medical interventions. It is directly compared with dummy treatments which mean a routine part of research treatments will be done to have clinical effects beyond placebo.

Results drawn from the standardized randomized controlled trials and systematic reviews have highlighted the connection between homeopathy medicine and placebo effects.

The concept of Homeopathy is built around vital force which is understood dynamics function control daily life movements. Hahnemann first introduced the term homeopathy and is based on the Vitalism. In an outlook of Herensape, 

The vital force tasks are to maintain harmony and order between an organism which means every part and component of an organism is guarded and influenced by vital forces. Only these vital forces protect us from getting ill

In accordance with Homeopathy definition, diseases are originated because of disturbance between the physical and internal energy matrix. In this direction goal of homeopathy is not associated with eliminating diseases conditions, despite harmonizing vital forces inside the body.

Therefore it can be deduced the capacity to self-healing can be strengthened with an application of homeopathy. Homeopathy pay attention to energy can be aided by administration supporting body functioning. The innate process encompasses change in mental, emotional, spiritual changes.

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Homeopathy Efficacy

Refusal behavior of patients may have embark on people disbelief system. In contrast to Sammeul who first aloud the name of Homeopathy spoke about vital force as a target for homeopathy medicine. Meanwhile, modern homeopathy argues on vital force concept and emphasis healing capacity of an organism(Zimmermann-Viehoff, & Meissner, 2007).

There is consensus is being drawn the placebo effects produces remarkable cure methodology, somehow its effect size is questionable. Across the many fields, placebo effects are widely applicable like in healing and reducing pain tolerance or mimic the central effects of drugs(Raza, 2020)

As complex interventions therapies of complementary and alternative medicines have proven the strong evidence of placebo effects. This stated underline fact, CAM therapies produced smooth and gentle actions. 

In homeopathy case, placebo effects are known for enhancing the degree of patient involvement during treatment. 

Recent literature of placebo entails illustration emphasized the relevance of threats factors like emotional, altruism, empathy and subjective for the treatment. Get to know more about homeopathy efficacy from Arabessay essay writers team. If you need urgent assistance in writing assignments? Students can now hire ArabEssay best university assignment help in Salalah experts online.

Clinical Studies Of Homoeopathic Remedies

With a sort of results and outcomes, one can’tdenies non-specific effects of homeopathy during experimental trials. About 200 clinical studies on homeopathic remedies have been carried out and available till date actually determining the link between homeopathic with the placebo effect. Many homeopathists have reluctantly accepted the placebo effect derive from positive experience in the self-healing process. There are still most difficult debates have reasonably produced good arguments highlighted given below-

  • A placebo effect is unreliable, that means patients who get benefitted from it today, might not get benefitted tomorrow. But in homoeopathy, whether it is a long run, patients will definitely either get benefited or not
  • In most of the unethical stance, placebo effects seem not to be appropriate. That implies clinical will tell the truth (Ernst, 2012)
  • Advising patients, a placebo in critical conditions threaten his/ her life even more
  • For generating a placebo, we don’t require to administer it. All the treatment has to come with clinical administration, but in case of a placebo, homoeopathy might get convoluted

Most of the observational studies have shown and came to the conclusion that homeopathic remedies are completely different from the placebo effect. It is also noticed many studies have shown ad nauseum, that means patients who assigned placebo to do better than other patients. But still, there is contraction and continuous debate will go on in terms of proving the relationship between placebo and homeopathy. To get database homeopathy and literature associated with placebo effects, get instant quality assignment help in UAE from ArabEssay today.


The specific effects of homeopathy are somewhat different from placebo effects. The work and clinical trials supported described and put forward several arguments when it comes to establishing a relationship between placebo and homeopathy. In this report we have drawn such arguments like the goal of homeopathy is not associated with eliminating diseases conditions, despite harmonizing vital forces inside body whereas placebo effect is directly compared with dummy treatments which means a routine part of research treatments will be done to have clinical effects beyond placebo. Despite this many homeopathists have reluctantly accepted the placebo effect derive from positive experience in the self-healing process.


Ernst, E. (2012). Why I changed my mind about homeopathy. Guardian Newspaper, 3.

Haresnape, C. (2013). An exploration of the relationship between placebo and homeopathy and the implications for clinical trial design. JRSM short reports, 4(9), 2042533313490927.

Teixeira, M. Z., Guedes, C. H., Barreto, P. V., & Martins, M. A. (2010). The placebo effect and homeopathy. Homeopathy, 99(2), 119-129.

Raza, A. (2020). Are the Clinical Effects of Homeopathy Placebo Effects?. International Journal of Homeopathy, Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 1-1.

Sharma.S(2016).Modern science rejects homeopathy as ‘placebo effect’: Here’s why. Available at-https://www.hindustantimes.com/health-and-fitness/homeopathy-conundrum-can-sugar-pills-hurt/story-OoRbGLPEDUqHRGyUrf4vJL.html

[Data Accessed on 9 February 2021]

Zimmermann-Viehoff, F., & Meissner, K. (2007). Homeopathy and placebo-Synonym, similar or different?.ForschendeKomplementärmedizin, 14(4), 247-248.

Communication Methods : Advantages and Disadvantages

Communication Assignment Help

Introduction To Communication

Communication is considered as the process related with exchanging as well as transfer information as well as ideas and knowledge from one entity to the other within an organisation or in other contexts. In this case we will be emphasizing more on business communication. A business communication can be perceived as the process related with referring information of the organisation and understanding the strategic approach of promoting product as well as services to the potential customers within the organisation (Mentsiev, 2020). Therefore it is the process of interaction among the stakeholder groups as intrinsic and extrinsic to the company. There are most preferred four kinds of communication patterns which are written communication followed by a constant communication as well as verbal and the web-based communication which is the latest format of communication.

Verbal communication is also known as oral communication. This is considered as the process of transfer of information as well as exchange of ideas from one individual to that of the other through an approach that is speaking by mouth or over telephone and even casting over radio. In this context it is important to use an example and highlighting the specimen of a Samsung company it can be highlighted that the company uses radio for advertising products in addition to another format. For evidence recently Samsung S4 was promoted using at FM frequency for advertisement of the product in the country of Oman (Riceet al., 20`7). They’re for this kind of oral infrastructure for communication with external audience help the organisation to acquire more customers for purchasing their product. The source of the content which is a spread over this media is a from the internal and domain of the company which is the marketing department and it is a sent to the radio station. The objective of the information exchange is advertising product by using the medium of mouth like speaking for evidence promotion by people advertising the product by using their mouth to create a gesture and alternating the frequency of speech in such a way so that customers are attracted to the message.

Advantages And Disadvantages Of The Verbal Mode Of Communication

Advantages Of Verbal Mode Of Communication

It is quite easy to detect the issues which imply that by the use of verbal communication it would be simple and easy in understanding problems where it uses mouth for evidence in helping people in understanding who have conflict among themselves whether among two people or more than two people. Verbal medium of studying messages is easy to solve all these kinds of problems. It is on most cases a one-on-one communication and it is a very critical advantage of verbal communication. Using this form of communication it is easy to talk among people preferably among the managers or employees and remain face to face avoiding fear of anybody person being negative attractions of the message (Birinci, Berezina &Cobanoglu, 2018). For evidence in frontline organisations managers to talk among employees by using this verbal medium so that employees are encouraged to state their problems in the open without having the fear. As per Essay writer in Salalah. This is how manager and employees can interact freely and without the gesture of a fear or secrecy.

Disadvantages Of Verbal Mode Of Communication

It is quite easy to forget the verbal communication. People might easily forget the words that has been spoken for the way in which the words have been previously framed in order to be put forward in the conversations with people. For evidence it can be highlighted that in a college if you want to speak with a specific instructor the question that was especially ought to be asked might be forgotten. In this case a different question is asked to which is not of that expected level of relevance. This is one critical disadvantage associated with the verbal mode of communication (Siren & Knudsen, 2017). It needs a special area for conducting it as one among the critical disadvantages since the whenever people wanted to establish communication with others it is important to have that specific to an order likes to be able to establish effective influence. It is important to give the employees the scope of practicing and interacting in the same fashion so that the tone of professionalism is maintained. In this case practice helps in eradicating the fear of losing parts of speech which are very relevant and important to convey.

This is a very critical matter to be considered while establishing verbal communication. This is because the majority of the customers in the organisation are attracted by the verbal communication of message. The rendition of specific content and maintaining a proper dialect while providing the context to people should be maintained. This is a verbal communication can help people to be attracted to the messages they get through advertisements in television and Prem idea about a product.

Written Communication

Written communication on the other hand is the process associated with transfer of information by means of writing various kind of documents. This document can be later or email or fax or report. For evidence various front-line organisation send emails and in fact nowadays all big and small companies are actually using email through their laptop or computer which are centralised. In fact exchanger of emails from exterior sources are tracked in order to get information regarding the market where and organisation is competing (Goudeau &Croizet, 2017).

The source of this information might be external or internal two other organisations however especially associated with the IT department which sanctions female. This means that I’m using internet it makes it easy to convey written communication as well to extract ideas about exterior market domain. The objective of this kind of information exchange is helping the people or customers or even their employees to get specific and relevant ideas and getting the ultimate a data from various sources by means of evidence in format of writing for evidence email. In specific cases like when there is a new product and it is important to advertise the same email will be easy medium to get hold of new customers to read about the product and understand the same (Your business. azcentral.com, 2021). Even the existing customers can be refurbished by using email. Email marketing is a direct approach which is the individual feels that the written documentation is especially directed to individual and therefore this individualist approach helps in increasing the brand loyalty in the mind of the customers. To know verbal communication channel mode, you can also ask for Plagiarism free assignment in Sohar from ArabEssay.

Advantages And Disadvantages Of The Written Form Of Communication

Advantages Of Written Communication Form

One of the greatest advantages of written communication is that it creates and keep proof. It is not easy to exchange information on many occasions as and when required. However if the exchanged information is already written it can be used for difference on any other locations for further communication. Written communication covers lot of data in a free size a segment. While exchanging verbal communication lot of words and figures of speech used to convey only a single piece of information. This is because while writing information can be arranged in a precise way where there is scope for rethinking before documentation of the information on the paper (Oofva.com. 2021). Therefore it helps people in creating formal speeches easily as they have a scope to cover a lot of information or other form of messages to considered in a short span of time and in a precise format. It she walks professionalism and helps stakeholders to cater to different kind of issues as it is not used for get any piece of information if it comes in a precise documented format.

The Disadvantages Associated With Written Communication

The process of conveyance of written communication is not as swift as it is in the case of verbal communication. Writing for it by documentation as well as a proofreading and finally sending information from one person to that of another person takes considerable amount of time. Besides it cannot be assured that the person is immediately listening and reactive with the message when written form of communication is used. Therefore it is important to check the format of transport. For evidence if letters are exchanged it is important to keep a follow through and preferably if it is an official paper of exchange between one organisation and that of other then the following three is very relevant in this case to understand the reaction of the recipient upon reaching of the letter. It is also important to state in this regard that it is more expensive format of communication and hence this should be considered as a disadvantage. Using newsletters therefore can be exchange which is expensive for the organisation. Never the less the same has to be used on specific locations (Allen, 2017). However this regarding all the aspects in should also be highlighted that even to exchange simple information it is important to accumulator items like a pin as well as paper and up prolific mode of sending the same which involves exchange of economy to achieve the objective. These aspects are irrelevant in case of verbal communication. Written communication is very important in order to keep future documentation track. As per Assignment writing in Al Hamra experts it helps people to keep the record from the order documented information. It becomes relevant if the record keeping is in context of purchasing or selling product.

Visual Communication

Visual or onscreen communication is one of the comparatively e more recent form of customer communication. This is a communicating process where communication among people take place by using visual slide drawing air face to face television or smartphone. For evidence in South Africa Samsung is using the MBC station for existing customers or people with a telecast of their product. This information is coming from internal sources of an organisation which is the most usually the sales department which is transferring the information to the television for forecasted and advertisement of the product to reach the greater target audience. The objective of this form of communication is advertisement on most occasions (Konget al., 2017). For that is it can also be highlighted that Huawei is an electronics company which makes maximum use of social network like Instagram or Twitter or Facebook for accumulation of new set of customers as well as keeping the loyalty band of the existing customers and exhibiting their competitors about new product and features a by keeping the market and their domination. Like said by dissertation writing help in Nizwa experts the other two forms of communication the onscreen or the visual form of communication also have its own advantage and set of disadvantages.

Advantages Of The Onscreen Or Visual Form Of Communication

One of the biggest advantages of this form of visual communication is that it acquires greater attraction. Nevertheless in order to ensure the success of this form of communication the content that is portrayed with this mode of communication should be adaptable to attract attention. This means that it should be easy in understanding and the conceptualization should be simple because there is no words however delegation of messages through the expectation format where the television watching is not associated with hearing sounds at the same time to gain address but the reality of the message. On one hand the visual interpretation enables people to gain the message faster rather than any other form of communication. It is also easier in terms of understanding and the impact of influence it has on people. It involves either body language or other forms of nonverbal gestures of individuals if they are portrayed in case of telecasting such messages (Hayhoe& Brewer, 2020). It is evident that Samsung company uses this form of communication as well in addition to simple lovable messages over a radio for communicating with their audience and this is especially used in case of new product launches to demonstrate the lifestyle side of the new products and their adaptability with the new lifestyle trends.

Disadvantages Of The Onscreen Or The Visual Form Of Communication

The cost is the greatest disadvantage of this form of communication. It is evident that in order to convey this kind of a message it is important to telecast the message in television or use the social media network which involves creation of content as well as maintaining a group of its intellectuals who will be able to create message and render the same over various form of paid as well as I am paid media. Therefore when every individual or organisation so want to feature or advertise any element or a product it will cost a lot of money if the same message is to be conveyed as a form of on screen or visual message. It requires more advertising cost compared to radio. Therefore in terms of competition it can be highlighted that the message and the impact that radio is able to create is comparatively more comprehensive and beneficial in terms of product marketing at least (Qinet al., 2019). However assignment help expert said it takes time to understand that by means of visual communication whether people are attracted to the product or not. There for the reaction time that is taken by people against the message conveyed through visual message is much more in comparison to that of verbal messages. At first people takes time to segregate and perceive various fragments of the message and decode the literal sense that the individual or the brand tries to convey by means of the on-screen message. However after this process is accomplished the brands get the perceived benefit of these messages. Nevertheless it is evident that in order to exhibit the larger image of product or brands many organisations use this kind of messages irrespective of the fact that it incurs greater cost.

Web Based Messages

Web based messages implied that communication with people takes place through transfer as well as sharing of ideas and exchanging data through the online media only. In this case the information exchange becomes relevant when some brand message is exchanged over the web platform. Nevertheless this incorporates and also takes into account to the people-to-people communication that takes place regularly over the web-based platform school stop nevertheless the topics under context should be the message and reception of the same message which is convert from any company website or social media pages of the specific brands (Webbet al., 2017). Their perceived advantage as well as disadvantages of web-based communication process.

Advantages Of Web-Based Communication

One of the biggest advantages of the web-based communication is that it is very easy in terms of utility and it is only as easy as using internet and as beneficial as using the sale. This is because the information will be sent and received almost in a moment. It will be easy to communicate with customers all around The World. It is important to state in this regard that there is no and deception or transfer time associated in this case for stock for the conveyance over radio it is important to transfer the message from the marketing team to the radio broadcasting room and then the messages convert (Goudeau &Croizet, 2017). In case of written documentation it is important to submit the letter or email in a format with and transfers it to the documentation Portal of another individual full study nevertheless in case of a web-based conveyance of messages, the immediate click of a button accounts for direct transfer of the message and portrayal of the same at the same time in the web pages of all individuals who are probably over the internet and interested in the brand or the individual who is sharing the message.

Disadvantages Of Web-Based Format Of Communication

This kind of information can be decoded by hackers using the same format of internet and people might hack back and steal data by means of this form of communication. This is a very limited disadvantage although and web-based information exchange is actually very important when it is important to advertise products over a greater platform and showcasing the importance of a product to the greater audience. Recently platforms of web-based information exchange like Instagram and Facebook has become very popular and product marketing over these platforms has also been popular since people exhibit a greater trend of purchasing product which has been marketed over these platforms.

Telephone Exchanges

Telephone is electrical instrumentation transfer information using the voice system and not speech system. There are both advantage and disadvantage of telephone exchanges.

Advantages Of Telephone Exchange

it is cheaper to use telephone as a mode of exchange compared to other fast network if it is a case of internal information exchange. In case of a product advertising telephone is also becoming popular as a mode of direct product marketing where individuals are directly called up to discuss about the product and its advantages. it is cheap in terms of advertisement benefit in comparison to television advertisement. Hence the monetary aspect related to it is beneficial in comparison to the visual prospect of advertising (Mentsiev, 2020).


Disadvantages of telephone network issues in in large number of areas on account of poor network strength are accountable to disadvantage to a great extent. Online assignment help experts said many weather conditions like that of storm or rain it will be a great issue as the telephone network is not strengthened by the security of wavelength but wired transference.


In conclusion it can be highlighted that there are pros and cons of almost all forms of communication exchange. For evidence in context of written email, the research study has a discussed that information might not be documented or it might take greater time and cost in comparison to another format. In the same way face-to-face communication can also have its own share of negative issues as ideas might be forgotten and feelings might not be properly express. Never the face-to-face communication is having the maximum impact and the most important actions are expressed in case of face-to-face interactions as it is important and possible to track the real time expressions and the reception reaction of people when they get the message. they both written as well as visual and verbal communications are important from their own perspective. in terms of organisational exchanges all these forms of communications are implemented and used according to their own advantage criteria. Now a days it is viable that with wisdom information exchange is on the rise. Many organisations including the discuss the Samsung company is using it more often for increasing their sales ratio. website marketing can also be considered as either form of a visual or written form of communication depending on the kind of content that is shared.

Reference List

Allen, M. (Ed.). (2017). The SAGE encyclopedia of communication research methods. Sage Publications.

Birinci, H., Berezina, K., &Cobanoglu, C. (2018). Comparing customer perceptions of hotel and peer-to-peer accommodation advantages and disadvantages. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management.

Goudeau, S., &Croizet, J. C. (2017). Hidden advantages and disadvantages of social class: How classroom settings reproduce social inequality by staging unfair comparison. Psychological science28(2), 162-170.

Hayhoe, G. F., & Brewer, P. E. (2020). A research primer for technical communication: Methods, exemplars, and analyses. Routledge.

Kong, L., Ye, L., Wu, F., Tao, M., Chen, G., &Vasilakos, A. V. (2017). Autonomous relay for millimeter-wave wireless communications. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications35(9), 2127-2136.

Mentsiev, A. U. (2020). The Role of Information and Communication Technologies in Modern Education. CITISE, 71-8.

Oofva.com. (2021). 4 Communication Methods: Pros & Cons – Out of the Office. (2015). Retrieved 21 January 2021, from http://oofva.com/blog/4-communication-methods-pros-cons/

Qin, Z., Ye, H., Li, G. Y., &Juang, B. H. F. (2019). Deep learning in physical layer communications. IEEE Wireless Communications26(2), 93-99.

Rice, S., Winter, S. R., Doherty, S., & Milner, M. (2017). Advantages and disadvantages of using internet-based survey methods in aviation-related research. Journal of Aviation Technology and Engineering7(1), 5.

Siren, A., & Knudsen, S. G. (2017). Older adults and emerging digital service delivery: A mixed methods study on information and communications technology use, skills, and attitudes. Journal of aging & social policy29(1), 35-50.

Webb, L., Clough, J., O’Reilly, D., Wilmott, D., & Witham, G. (2017). The utility and impact of information communication technology (ICT) for pre-registration nurse education: A narrative synthesis systematic review. Nurse Education Today48, 160-171.

Yourbusiness.azcentral.com(2021). Advantage & Disadvantage of the Different Types of Communication Channels. yourbusiness.azcentral.com. Retrieved 21 January 2021, from https://yourbusiness.azcentral.com/advantage-disadvantage-different-types-communication-channels-15774.html

Introduction To Marketing Management Philosophies

Marketing Management Philosophies

Marketing has two facets First- Philosophy or attitude or management orientation which emphasis on customer stratification. Second marketing is an organization function and set distinct operations for implementing functions.

The American Marketing Association definition of marketing concentrates on the second facet and defined marketing as a set of activities, institutions and process for communicating, delivering and exchanging products and values to the customers. 

David Packard, co-founder of Hewlett Packard off quoted- Marketing is so much important to be transferred solely on the marketing department. Marketing entails a deep understanding of an organization connected all the stakeholders, partners including suppliers, stockholders and distributors.

The marketing concept was first introduced by Mickitterick, Felton and Keith in the writings. Houston believed accommodating customer’s satisfaction should be achieved through a suitable marketing mix. Furthermore, Philips Kotler, one of the famous marketing experts considered marketing as a human activity to meet the needs and wants of the customers (Kotler, 2016). Like this marketing definition, there are several marketing management philosophies always been in a history of marketing introduction which is going to be discussed in the given section-

Product Orientation

A comprehensive discussion has been provided by Barkley, Keith, Wilkie and Moore. During this period, a vast concept has been introduced at a different period. Under this, a product orientation is known as philosophy focuses on internal firms capabilities. 

As per the essay writer view, there is nothing wrong with assessing a firm’s capabilities in fact these assessments are the major components of strategic marketing planning. 

A product orientation period is relatively short as such it doesn’t take into account whether the values of products and services are efficient or ably meet the requirements of customers or not. Apple is always been in news because of its creation, operating system and other gadgetry because they hope to sell the results. But when competitors are week and demand exceeding supply, a product-oriented can survive a long period even prosper.  

Sales Orientation

The sales era began with the 1920s to 1960s when business world associated with sales marketing in most of the domain. The key increases the maximum sales are increasing volume. In this course it can be said, a sales orientation is based on ideas and sales techniques where it is presumed, people will buy more goods and services if rigorous sales techniques have been used. However, intermediaries are also assumed to manufacture goods in that period (Taghipourian et.al, 2017). 

The fundamental problem linked with sales orientation we have figured out is as product orientation took place, there would be a lack of understanding of needs or wants may affect the sales force. 

Marketing Orientation

This is an intuitively appealing process as it describes social and economic justification process of an organization is an existence of needs and wants of customers. According to the following statement, a marketing concept must include the following components-

  • Focus on customers needs and wants in such a way company become able to draw separation line among product’s offered by competitors.
  • Integrate all the organizational activities including satisfying customers needs
  • Achieving long term goals for the organization

Indeed the success recipe to deliver a unique experience to customers must satisfy the intent and preferences of target customers. This definitely requires thorough research of customers needs, enabling the company to execute the plan as well deliver desiring experiences to customers by combining the firm’s resources. If you want to know how firm adopts and apply marketing concept or how they assume sales are not depended in an aggressive sales force, you can ask assistance from ArabEssay essay helpers team today.

Societal Marketing Orientation

 The societal marketing orientation extends the philosophies of marketing concept by acknowledging that there is some product that customers don’t want as it doesn’t stand by their best interest of society as a whole. 

The American association marketing definition highlighted the importance of societal marketing orientation via engulfing society as large (Ringold & Weitz 2007). Over the 30 years, several definitions of marketing have been put forward to receive widespread supports from society. For instance, Coca has committed to reuse or recycle its bottle 100% placed in the market. On that note in 2008, the company has set up the world largest recycling plant located in South Carolina.

Product Orientation

Product orientation philosophy is largely based on how the company focuses on management attention. In 1950,s product orientation was enough popular where the quality of products was chief concerns of the company. Companies believed at that time by putting quality resources and doing marketing research will help them to develop high-quality products. But the major drawbacks we have identified is this philosophy focus least on customer needs and desires.

Holistic Marketing

As opined by management experts, holistic marketing considered as strategic marketing where business entities mull over as a whole. Basically, it is an amalgamation four sectors internal marketing, societal marketing, relationship marketing and integrated marketing.

If you have any query or finding problems in understanding any of marketing philosophy concepts, you can take assistance from ArabEssay based instant essay help team today. We provide quality assignment help in Oman.


We started this blog by defining the concepts of marketing where we have taken accounts various marketing philosophers view who have attributed huge marketing success in today’s era, for instance, Philips Kottler’s who is one of the famous marketing experts considered marketing as a human activity to meet needs and wants of the customers. In the next section, we discussed the characteristics of marketing within the organization which is highly influenced by marketing philosophy. There we enumerated product orientation that focuses on internal firms capabilities, and then we enlist definition of other philosophies like sales orientation, marketing orientation, Product orientation, societal marketing orientation and holistic orientation. All these philosophies are linked with fundamental drawbacks. 


Kotler, P. (2016). A framework for marketing management. Pearson Education Limited.

McClintic, M. A. (2011). Marketing: Historical Perspectives.

Ringold, D. J., & Weitz, B. (2007). The American Marketing Association definition of marketing: Moving from lagging to leading indicator. Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, 26(2), 251-260.

Taghipourian, Mohammad & Bakhsh, Mahsamashayekh. (2017). Marketing Philosophies: From Customer Abuse to Customer Intimacy, and Again a Little Customer Torment. Journal of Business Theory and Practice. 5. 198-216. 10.22158/jbtp.v5n3p198.

Wang, V. X. (2013). Marketing educational programs through technology and the right philosophies. In Marketing Strategies for Higher Education Institutions: Technological Considerations and Practices (pp. 15-24). IGI Global.

Effects Of Stress On Cells And Muscles

Cells And Muscles

Whether it is an intrinsic or extrinsic stimulus, the compensatory biological responses to stressors are always based on the type or severity of stimuli. For a long time, researchers have suggested that hormones present just in peripheral tissues responded to these stimuli. But with time, researches are still going on to uncover what dimension of the body actually performed to calculate stress level or how it combats stress.

Around 50 years ago, the effects of stress on endocrine systems were discovered. Many studies have noted down structural changes abundantly when stress suspected at a huge level. Chronic stress leads to decreases in brain size and its weight brings out changes in cognitive memory. However it is not understood according to duration and time, stress causes structural changes of cells, muscles and brain. Therefore it becomes highly important for the researchers to take account effects of stress on cells, muscles and nervous system. In this article, we are going to determine the affinity of stress to biological functions.

Cellular Stress Responses

Cells respond to external stimuli or stress in a variety of ways ranging from pathway activation to signalling or eliciting death cells (HealthOne, 2020). The initial response of cell towards stress is to gear up or helping cell in defending. Depend on the severity and longevity of stress, cells would survive to promote cell survival. 

When a person experiencing stress, it is more likely their energy will slow down. This is resulted due to mitochondria”{Power house of the cell} damages. It activated fight and flight response. 

Stress is responsible for breaking of mitochondrial DNA into bloodstreams that in turn acts similarly as hormones. In a view of essay Deutsch, due to prolonged stress, alteration of DNA may have suspected in patients causing impairment in function or promoting cancerous cell growth, However, some evidence still required in the case of alteration of DNA due to stress.

In an outlook of Yaribeygu et.al, 2017, a high concentration of stress hormones causes declarative memory disorders. When a study conducted on animals, researchers came to know a reduction in spatial memory found to be in an animal as results of hippocampus atrophy. In other case, people having Cushing’s syndrome observed to have atrophy syndrome. 

Stress also has a negative impact on learning. In many cases, it has seen adrenal steroids alter long term potentiating which is a critical component of memory. 

But in many cases, we have found stress is not always decreased memory. In fact in a certain situation, it can improve memory. The conditions include non-familiarities, life-threatening aspects imposed by stimuli. For instance, if a student appears in written examination, in a high-stress level, students would write and try harder to memorize everything related to concepts. But if due to job stress, you are unable to complete assignments on time, then ArabEssay based essay writer is the best option for you as they can give flawless write-ups in no time.

Stress And Endocrine System

There is broad and the mutual relationship has been seen among stress and endocrine system. Stress has a hardcore impact on system operation also at some stance system affects the severity of stress. Stress in both the cases either changes activity of the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, adrenal glands, gonads, thyroids etc or activates these glands(Picard et.al, 2017). Thierry et al have suggested this would be impossible to separate endocrine functions and stress. In the different location of this blog, we have also discussed the effects of stress on hormones at a border perspective.

Stress And Gastrointestinal Complication

The effects of stress on the gastrointestinal system occur in two aspects. First, it affects appetite and seconds it affects the normal functioning of the GI tract. Stress increases GI system responses also may reactivate inflammation via secreting P substance. A detailed table stress effects on the GI system have been proposed in given below section with help of online assignment help experts-

Stress effects on GI systemArea and receptors being involvedEffects in Details
Modifying AppetiteAmygdala, Ventral tegmental areaReduces food and water intake
GI tract movementCRH-2 and CRH-1 receptorsPreventing stomach emptying  decreases initial part of GI tract
Digestive functionsParasympathetic functionsModify absorption
GI system inflammationT- lymphocytesIncreases inflammation by P substance

In case you want more details about the table and proposed researcher, get quality assignment in UAE you can get in touch with ArabEssay instant essay help team today.


In this blog, we have discussed the effects of stress on cell and brain activity by covering a wide range of research papers. In this context, we can say that stress includes both beneficial and harmful effects. However, in many cases, its harmful effects attributed to more attention for instance stress is responsible for breaking of mitochondrial DNA into bloodstreams that in turn acts similarly as hormones or Stress increases GI system responses also may reactivate inflammation via secreting P substance. Also one of its beneficial impact we have figured out is conditions include non-familiarities, life-threatening aspects imposed by stimuli enhances memory at times.


HealthOne(2020). the impact of stress on cellular level. Available at- https://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=en&as_sdt=0%2C5&as_ylo=2017&q=the+impact+of+stress+on+cellular+level&btnG=

Picard, M., McEwen, B. S., Epel, E. S., & Sandi, C. (2018). An energetic view of stress: focus on mitochondria. Frontiers in neuroendocrinology, 49, 72-85.

Thierry A-M, Javoy F, Glowinski J, Kety SS. Effects of stress on the metabolism of norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin in the central nervous system of the rat. I. Modifications of norepinephrine turnover. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1968;163:163–171

Yaribeygi, H., Panahi, Y., Sahraei, H., Johnston, T. P., & Sahebkar, A. (2017). The impact of stress on body function: A review. EXCLI journal, 16, 1057.

Ways To Write A Synopsis For A Dissertation

Dissertation Synopsis

Synopsis is generally the summary of a project that is planned to seek the approval of the authorities. It is important because a synopsis decides whether the authorities will accept the research paper or not. Synopsis writing is very different from the usual essay writing. Arabessay provide content writing services in Sur.

A synopsis is constructed In a way that it gives a clear picture of the research paper to the reviewer at one glance. ( Terrell,2015)  It carries a summary of what the research is all about, and highlights the important points that are to be discussed in the research paper. Most importantly a synopsis describes the importance of the research in detail so that whosoever is reviewing the synopsis will be convinced that the research is necessary and approves the research. In this article, we are going to discuss ways to write a synopsis for a particular research paper. 

Ways To Write A Synopsis Dissertation

A dissertation synopsis consists of a title, hypothesis which is also called statement of a problem, objectives, literature review, and research methodology, references, and official requirements. 

  • Title

The title represents what the research paper is all about. Therefore the title of the synopsis must be brief, and informative. Students should avoid writing a catchy title when they are preparing a synopsis. The length of the title should neither be lengthy neither should it be very short. Most importantly the name of the institute along with the total number of cases should be included in the title. (Horn,2012)

  • Hypothesis- 

In a dissertation synopsis consists of a hypothesis which is also called a statement of a problem. Here the key problem is described precisely. Based on the problem the aids are constructed by the research student. In short, it is the prediction of the relationship between more than one variable. It shows the necessity of the research that needs to be conducted. It is mostly done after the research student has clearly understood the problem and reviewed the literature keeping other factors in mind. Students should remember that the hypothesis of a synopsis is written in approximately 200 words.

  • Objectives

The synopsis should mention the objectives of the research paper assuring the reader that the objectives will be achieved in the research paper. There must be no more than two to three objectives about the problem mentioned in the research paper. Most importantly while mentioning the objectives in the synopsis students should avoid using the terms like “ the only study” etc.

  • Literature Review

The literature review is a vital part of the synopsis. It is written so that the readers or the target audience can familiarize themselves with the problem stated in the research. It also describes in detail any work done by others on similar subjects and further helps the research students understand the hurdles faced by other researchers. It anticipates the problems that might crop up during the research and finds strategic solutions to those problems. Literature review also assists in modifying the research paper. Most importantly it reflects the depth of knowledge of the research student. Students should write the literature review in approximately 300 words quoting references that are easily retrieved.

  • Research Methodology

The synopsis should also describe the method in which the research will be conducted in about 200 words. It forms the core of the research. Students should keep in mind that the research methodology consists of the design of the research, settings of the research, samples, controls, methods of study that include investigation and examination, data collection, analysis, and ethical clearance. (Thomas ,et.al 2007)

  • References

A research paper is written extracting information from already published material mostly. If the referencing is not done correctly the research papers can get rejected on grounds of plagiarism. Students must keep a note of the places where they are extracting the information from along with the date when the information was last visited and list them down in the references section. There are different styles in which the information used can be referenced. The most common and widely used referencing styles are APA and MLA. Students who do not have much experience in referencing a research paper can avoid stepping into the plagiarism trap by seeking dissertation assignment help from ArabEssay. In some cases, students can also add an acknowledgment after the references to especially thank the people who have helped them prepare the research paper on time.

  • Official Requirements – 

The most important part of a synopsis is the section that contains the official information. Any synopsis is incomplete without this section. The official requirements include the name of the research student along with his or her designation, Name and designation of the guide who has helped the student in his research, Name and designation of the concerned HOD either of the department of the institute, full name of the university and finally signature of the officials along with the seal and their registration numbers if any applicable. 


Therefore it can be said that Synopsis is considered to be the most important part of a research paper because it decides the fate of the research paper. Moreover, it is the first official documents that is assessed by officials and based on the synopsis the reviewers decide whether or not to allow the research paper. Therefore it needs to be constructed carefully keeping all the important aspects in mind. Synopsis should briefly summarize the research paper and highlight the importance of the research. Students who lack experience in writing a synopsis for the research paper can enroll in write my dissertation for me and write down a perfect synopsis for their research paper.


Terrell, S. R. (2015). Writing a proposal for your dissertation: Guidelines and examples. Guilford Publications.

Bradford, M. (2003). Writing essays, reports and dissertations. Key Methods in Geography, 497.

Horn, R. (2012). Researching and writing dissertations: A complete guide for business and management students. Kogan Page Publishers.

Thomas, R. M., & Brubaker, D. L. (2007). Theses and dissertations: A guide to planning, research, and writing. Corwin Press.

Singh, J., Vishakantamurthy, D. G., & Charan, P. M. (2012). Synopsis and Reference System. Asian Journal of Nursing Education and Research, 2(1), 43.

Gumbo, M. T., Mathipa, E. R., & Ngulube, P. (2014). Writing an acceptable dissertation thesis. ADDRESSING RESEARCH CHALLENGES.

Allison, B., & Race, P. (2004). The student’s guide to preparing dissertations and theses. Routledge.

Graustein, J. S. (2014). How to write an exceptional thesis or dissertation: A step-by-step guide from proposal to successful defense. Atlantic Publishing Company.

Jalilifar, A., & VAHID, D. H. (2010). A contrastive generic analysis of thesis and dissertation abstracts: Variations across disciplines and cultures.

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