Role Of A Data Link Layer In Computer Networks

Data Link Layer

The role of the data link layer in the computer networks is responsible in multiplexing the data streams, detecting data frames, with medium accessing and controlling errors. As stated by Mao et al. (2018), data link layer is the 2nd layer to OSI layered model and it has underlying hardware and that helps to represent the upper layers as the medium for communication. Data link layer also works between the two hosts and are cone ted directly to one another and this connection is either broadcast or point to point. The systems present on the broadcast networks are connected lays on the same link. Moreover, while dealing with diverse and multiple numbers of hosts on single colliding domain, data link layers get more complex. Vinayakumar et al. (2017) had mentioned that one of the functionalities of the data link layer in the computer networks is framing. In this aspect, the data-link layer takes the packets from the Network layer and further encapsulates them to Frames. It, therefore, sends each of the frames bit-by-bit on the hardware. The data link layer at the receiver’s end, then picks up the signals from the hardware and then assembles them into the frames as well. According to the opinion of Hadi et al. (2018), the other functionality of the data link layer in the computer networks is addressing. The data-link layer helps providing 2-layer hardware that helps to address the business mechanisms. It is assumed that the hardware address has to be unique on links. It has been done into the hardware during the manufacturing time as well. To know more about the data link layer, students can take help from online assignment help experts from ArabEssay.

As per the outlook of Rehman et al. (2019), “synchronization” is another functionality of data link layer in the computer networks. This is used while the data link layer synchronizes the data frames those are sent on links. It also adds header to frame for defining the physical addresses of the receiver and sender present on the frame. In-case the frames are being distributed to diverse network systems. While the data frames are being sent on links, it helps in transferring the orders in-between the machines. Palanca et al. (2017) had opined that “controlling of errors” is the other functionality of data link layer in the computer networks. In this aspect, it is seen that signals sometimes encounters problem at the time of transition and the bits have been flipped. The errors are being detected and the data link layer attempts recovering the actual bits of data. The errors on detected and facing attempts of recovery, provides reports of errors to the senders as well. It also prevents duplication of the frames. As mentioned by Mao et al. (2018), “flow controls” is another functionality of data link layer in the computer networks. The stations present on the same link provide high-level of capacity and speed. The data-link layer also helps to ensure control helps in enabling the use of machines for exchanging data on a similar kind of speed. In order to overcome such issue, the data link layer prevents sending of the nodes on the link’s one side from the overwhelming and that causes receive of nodes on the other side of the links as well.

Figure 1: Data Link Layer
(Source: Palanca et al. 2017)

According to the outlook of Vinayakumar et al. (2017), “multi-accesses” is the other functionality of data link layer in the computer networks. While the host is present on the shared link as it tries to transfer data, it provides collision, which has the high probability of occurrences. The data-link layer helps providing mechanisms like CSMA/CD for equipping the capability to access the shared media among the diverse systems of operations as well.  Hadi et al. (2018) had mentioned that “reliable delivery” is another functionality of data link layer in the computer networks. It provides reliable services to delivery and that helps transiting the network layer datagram with no errors. The service provided by data link layer provides reliable delivery over the services and it also provides high rates of error occurrences, which can be locally correlated. It also links at the time of occurrence of the errors and doesn’t force retransmission of the data.

As opined by Rehman et al. (2019), data link layer, therefore, takes packet from the networking layer and that helps breaking it into the subsequent frames. Header of this layer will be providing source as well as destinations regarding MAC addresses. According to assignment help experts, the data link layer will be converting the data to binary digits like 0 and 1 and then helps to prepare them for physical layers. It is present for carrying data packets from the sources to the destined destinations without any modification, changes and also by utilizing it. As stated by Palanca et al. (2017), the data link layer is the reliable form of data delivery aspect between the nodes and it also helps to form the frames from packets that have been received from the networking layer. It also helps to transfer the datagram across the individual link and also helps to define a format that helps in dealing with prevents the errors that occurred in the system. It also helps in the transmission of error-free data.  

How Does Administrative Law Relate To Business Law

Administrative And Business Law


Administrative law is also called administrative and public law. It is a law relating to management organizations. Governing bodies are established by law and are governed by laws, regulations and orders, court decisions, judicial orders, and decisions. Agencies are created by state or federal governments to achieve specific goals or objectives. Government agencies are created by the act of Congress. Congress drafts legislation called organic statute that sets out the purpose and structure of the agency. The agency is accused of doing so, as defined by Congress. The administrative agencies are created with the help of environmental tools and it also explains the responsibility. Management organizations have been around since the founding of the United States. However, industrialization had a profound effect on the development of administrative rules. As people moved from farms and rural areas to the cities in search of work and raising families, the economy changed. It was very difficult. As a result of these economic changes, the government saw the need to expand its regulation to protect and sustain society. In the 20th century, the number of agencies grew rapidly with the introduction of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to regulate food and medicine, the Federal Trade Commission (FTC), and the Federal Reserve System (FRS) regulated banks. These are just some of the structures designed to control industries. Eventually, this growth occurred in response to economic hardship.


The rule of law affects the community daily. Administrative law is the delegated power given to administrative agencies to perform certain functions. Government agencies strive to protect the rights of citizens, companies, and any other business through administrative law. Management agencies are developed to protect consumers and the public. As a result, they are present in all aspects of life, including medicine, food, the environment, and trade. One of the state-recognized organizations is the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The FDA was created to protect public health (Oswald, 2018). Agency obligations are very broad. The agency fulfills its role by ensuring the safety and effectiveness of drugs used by humans and animals, biological products, medical devices, food, and cosmetics. Specifically, the FDA regulates public consumption, including additives, infant formula, bottled water, food additives, eggs, certain meats, and other food products. The FDA also regulates biological materials and medical devices, including vaccines, mobile medical products, implants, and dental devices. This federation started in 1906 with the passing of the Pollution of Food and Drug Law (Metzger, & Stack, 2017). The United States is facing a shortage of EpiPens, so in 2018, the FDA took steps to address the issue. The FDA has approved an extension of EpiPen expiry dates for four months at specific EpiPen locations. The extension has affected the community and the organization that produces EpiPens. That same year, the FDA approved the first standard EpiPen. A new generic version will be developed by a pharmaceutical company that has never produced EpiPen before. These two actions affect consumers by increasing the supply of life-saving EpiPens. To know more about FDA, take assistance from ArabEssay Law assignment help experts

Federal Trade Commission (FTC) is another well-known agency. The FTC was founded in 1914 when President Woodrow Wilson signed the Federal Trade Commission Act. The purpose of the agency is to protect consumers, to promote business competition, and to promote consumer interests by promoting innovation (Parrillo, 2017). The FTC works within the United States and abroad to protect consumers and promote competition. The organization fulfills this role by formulating policies, in collaboration with law enforcement to ensure consumer protection, and to help ensure that markets are open and free. For example, the management and enforcement of the Calling List is part of the FTC’s consumer protection policy. The FTC protects consumers from inappropriate or misleading practices. Phone fraud is a common problem. Scammers do everything in their power to trick the public into giving false charities, providing personal information, or providing access to financial information. The FTC is aware of these problems and imposes laws to punish fraudsters and educate the public. The FTC has created a telephone scam reporting system to help collect information about fraudsters so that they can be prosecuted. The agency also collects information about fraudsters and creates learning materials for the public. These features are designed to help consumers identify phone fraudsters, avoid their tactics, and report their activities (Bagley, 2017). Administrative law lies at the crossroads of several streets, crossing legal and political boundaries, political ideology and political science, public law, and public administration. As the governing body of government, the future of administrative law lies in increasing knowledge of how the law and legal institutions can advance important political and social values. Concerns about democratic values ​​will continue to dominate research in administrative law, as they will have an interest in the role of the judiciary, the judiciary, and the administration in improving governance. However, administrative law can expand and must grow to meet the new roles that government will face in the future. Ongoing efforts to reduce regulation and the creation of shares could signal a resurgence in the division between the public and private sectors in many countries, the effects of which will undoubtedly affect administrative law (Pasquale, 2017). Administrative law help now applies to an increasingly global and digital world, with the emerging use of international administrative institutions and new technologies that can advance public legitimacy and policy effectiveness – or that may undermine or support legal institutions. No matter where certain challenges may arise in the future, social science research on administrative law will continue to be needed to understand the functioning of public institutions and to identify ways to make laws and policies that can enhance social welfare, promote good governance, and enhance transparency and democratic rule. Administrative agencies are created by Congress or state legislatures by voluntary action. Consent action is a principle that forms the administrative agency and determines the magnitude of the powers vested in that agency. Some acknowledging functions are common and give the agency a lot of understanding. Some favorable activities are very limited and indicate the type of power the agency has (Walker, 2017).

While the law department forms administrative structures, they are often part of the executive branch because their main purpose is to enforce the law. Agencies in the upper branch are called executive agencies. At the level of government, these organizations are within the presidential cabinet. The President is empowered to appoint and oversee the leadership of the governing bodies, which includes replacing the current leadership when the President is sworn in. The governor has the same power at the highest levels of government. An independent agency is an agency, commission, or board that is not under the direction of a president or governor. Congress and state legislatures form independent bodies when they seek to block the work of political agencies and to address concerns beyond the scope of common law. These structures have a responsibility to keep the government and the economy running smoothly, especially when different political parties enter the state. Examples of private organizations include the Federal Trade Commission and the Central Intelligence Agency (Barnett, Boyd, & Walker, 2018). Private organizations are usually governed by boards or commissions consisting of five to seven members, from both major political parties, as well as independent political parties or minority political parties. The term of office of the board and commissioner is usually four to nine years, during which time rules are set to prevent total benefits at the same time. Most administrative agencies are created to protect the public interest, such as privacy, civil rights, or disease prevention. For example, the Clean Air Act is a collection of corporate laws that aim to prevent pollution. The Environmental Protection Agency (also known as the EPA) is an organization responsible for implementing the Clean Air Act. The EPA may investigate, conduct hearings, and impose fines based on its findings.

Government agencies were created and empowered by the United States Congress. These structures primarily function as the arm of the highest branch of government, but some organs of state are independent (Masur, & Posner, 2018). State agencies are created and empowered by the state legislature. The Federal Administrative Procedure Act (FAPA) governs the corporate governance law of the organization. This action regulates the administrative agencies involved in the drafting and implementation of regulations. FAPA also directs a process that allows state courts to review agency decisions. Countries have their FAPA versions. An independent agency is an agency, commission, or board that is not under the direction of a president or governor. Congress and state legislatures form independent bodies when they seek to block the work of political agencies and to address concerns beyond the scope of common law. These structures have a responsibility to keep the government and the economy running smoothly, especially when different political parties enter the state. Examples of private organizations include the Federal Trade Commission and the Central Intelligence Agency. To know more about the FTC and CIA, take instant assignment help from ArabEssay.

Private organizations are usually governed by boards or commissions consisting of five to seven members, from both major political parties, as well as independent political parties or minority political parties. The term of office of the board and commissioner is usually four to nine years, during which time rules are set to prevent total benefits at the same time. Agencies are empowered to enforce administrative rules and the fundamental law identified in agency approval. Unlike law enforcement investigations, agencies do not need a possible reason to launch an investigation. Generally, agencies are authorized to investigate by simply enforcing the rules. Adjudicating a legal dispute resolution process. In the case of an agency, this is a process similar to a trial or hearing used by agencies to enforce their actions and determine whether a business or individual has violated the law or regulations (Rose‐Ackerman, 2017).

Judgment can be either formal or informal. Formal judgment is similar to a trial and is usually considered by an administrative law judge (ALJ). The ALJ will determine which evidence is appropriate and valid, hear the evidence, and determine the outcome of the dispute in the findings. If appropriate, the ALJ will also determine a fine. Administrative exhaustion is a theory that, if a management remedy is provided by law, the party should seek first relief from the agency before obtaining court assistance. The purpose of this doctrine is to ensure that the courts will not assume cases where legal liberation is not required. Courts often cite the expertise of a case as an excuse to allow it to reconsider its action and correct mistakes, especially common ones that could significantly affect the party involved in the hearing. The Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) was passed by Congress in 1966 to provide a way for private citizens to request information from a unity government. As per the assignment maker, the main purpose of FOIA is to open up government operations so that the public can look to keep the government accountable to the people and the people who vote. The media makes up about 10 percent of FOIA requests, which is part of the investigation report. However, most applications come from businesses, lawyers, and individuals. Unless the alternative applies, the government must disclose the requested information. This has become a tool for businesses looking for more profit than their competition. Much government work is done through administrative structures. Given their responsibilities, they are often referred to as the “Fourth Branch” of the state. Agencies exist at all levels of government and have a great deal of understanding in enforcing and enforcing laws. Most businesses and individuals have contact with the government through agencies so it is very important to understand how they work to be successful in business and avoid legal consequences (Light, 2019). Sometimes harmful competition can arise when there are no rules. Banking and insurance are good examples of this. Without government regulation of banks (setting standards and procedures), open and fierce competition can lead to widespread bankruptcy. That can undermine public confidence in banks and businesses in general. According to a trade clause in the US Constitution, Congress has the power to regulate trade between nations and foreign nations. So the first federal agency dealt with trucks and railways, literally setting up traffic laws for foreign trade. The first government agency, the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC), was created in 1887. Congress gave the ICC the power to enforce organizational rules against railway discrimination and other unfair pricing practices. Earlier this century, the ICC gained the ability to adjust prices. From the 1970s to 1995, however, Congress passed legislative measures, and the ICC was officially abolished in 1995, with its powers vested in the Surface Transportation Board.

Independent agencies differ from government departments and other top agencies in their structure and function. Most administrative departments have one director, administrator, or secretary appointed by the president of the United States. Independent agencies probably have a commission or board with five to seven members sharing power over the agency. The president appoints commissioners or a board according to the Senate’s affirmation, but they usually act on behalf of and often for a longer period of four years. They cannot be removed without “good cause.” This means that most presidents will not get the appointment of all private company commissioners (Wachter, & Mittelstadt, 2019). Many independent agencies have a formal requirement for bipartisan membership in the commission, so the president cannot simply fill vacancies with members of his political party. Agencies have different powers. Many of the first laws that created them, such as the Federal Communications Act, gave them licensing rights. No party may enter into the productive work covered by this law without a license from the agency – for example, no business may establish a nuclear power plant without the prior approval of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. In recent years, economic downturns have led to a reduction in some licensing powers. Many agencies also have the authority to set rates charged by companies under the agency’s authority. Finally, agencies can control business processes. The FTC has full authority over all foreign trade businesses to monitor and eliminate “misconduct” and “fraudulent practices.” The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) oversees the issuance of corporate shares and other investments and monitors stock trading practices. Get to know more about SEC from ArabEssay assignment help experts.


It is concluded that in the above essay the information related to how the administrative law is related to business law and how it has an impact upon the business. It is enumerated that business law is the most effective element that maintains a better relationship with the customers. administrative law involves important political and social values, including democracy, impartiality, and efficiency. Management of the law of governance is reflected in part by the efforts made to create laws that better promote these values, and in part by the artistic efforts to explain how the law affects the functioning of organs of state.


Bagley, N. (2017). Remedial Restraint in Administrative Law. Colum. L. Rev., 117, 253.

Barnett, K., Boyd, C. L., & Walker, C. J. (2018). Administrative Law’s Political Dynamics. Vand. L. Rev., 71, 1463.

Light, S. E. (2019). The law of the corporation as environmental law. Stan. L. Rev., 71, 137.

Masur, J. S., & Posner, E. A. (2018). Cost-benefit analysis and the judicial role. The University of Chicago Law Review, 85(4), 935-986.

Metzger, G. E., & Stack, K. M. (2017). Internal Administrative Law. Michigan Law Review, 115(8), 1239-1307.

Oswald, M. (2018). Algorithm-assisted decision-making in the public sector: framing the issues using administrative law rules governing discretionary power. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 376(2128), 20170359.

Parrillo, N. R. (2017). The Endgame of Administrative Law: Governmental Disobedience and the Judicial Contempt Power. Harv. L. Rev., 131, 685.

Pasquale, F. (2017). Toward a fourth law of robotics: Preserving attribution, responsibility, and explainability in an algorithmic society. Ohio St. LJ, 78, 1243.

Rose‐Ackerman, S. (2017). What does “governance” mean?. Governance, 30(1), 23-27.

Wachter, S., & Mittelstadt, B. (2019). A right to reasonable inferences: re-thinking data protection law in the age of big data and AI. Colum. Bus. L. Rev., 494.

Walker, C. J. (2017). Modernizing the Administrative Procedure Act. Administrative Law Review, 69(3), 629-670.

Implementation Of HR Strategies In Tesco

Tesco HRM Practices


All organisations recruit people with specific and skill set in order to achieve their business objectives. However, attraction of the right people for the right job is not the primary objective. In order to ensure productivity and efficiency of the overall organisation the company should provide critical training and development to the employees. It is important to arrange employees on the basis of their sequence of skill and capabilities and retain them so that the organisation can create sustainable outcomes from them. These are the primary responsibilities of the human resource department of any company (Armstrong, 2005). Ranging from recruitment to retaining customers, the HR department of an organisation does a lot of activities. This research study emphasizes on analysing the scope and strategic approach of managing human resource activities in Tesco. Tesco is one of the largest supermarket chains in the entire world. The company is headquartered in the UK. the eminent activities of human resource Management in Tesco are recruitment and selection followed by induction and training and indulgence in two different motivational strategies (Beardwell et al., 2004). In addition to that the researcher will identify the way of managing individuals and group performance at the company.

Organisational Background

Tesco supermarkets is one of the biggest multinational grocery changes. It is considered as the third largest retail organisation in the whole world by means of their revenue purpose. In terms of the revenue earned, the company can be claimed as the 9th biggest retail market in the entire world. The company started operations since 1919 full stop the current headquarters of the organisation is in London full star recruits about 4.5 million employees (Watch, 2021). The major categories of products sold by Tesco includes grocery, household electronics, fresh food products along with vegetables and fruits, baby food products and so on. It is a renowned multinational organisation. Tesco has its self-owned banking company and their respective mobile network. As it is a market leader it is not easy to reach a position on account of efficiency in management systems only. It requires hard work for reaching that objective.

Process Of Recruitment And Selection At Tesco

Recruitment and selection are one of the most prominent responsibilities of the richer and department of a company. Recruitment of the right candidates for the specific position determines the original level of productivity of the company. In this regard any wrong decision my account for financial loss of the company. Various researchers considered that recruitment is the objective in any company by virtue of which the employees in the HRM department search prospective candidates and stimulates their skill so that they can fit into the job category of the company (Blackwood, 1995). Recruitment on the other hand refers to selecting the right people for the desired job role. Selection of the candidate having appropriate knowledge and skills for a particular job role is important. Tesco is careful about selecting the right candidates for the company. The primary motive of people selection strategy of a score is selection of qualified and skilled employees who have the right set of basic or advanced skills for a dedicated job role (Garrick, 1999).

Advertising Job Vacancy

Tesco is primarily associated with identification of empty positions of all concerned departments. After identification of position the HRM tesco research and development department of the company creates a list of required strength and capability of employees. After that it is possible to find out the necessary qualifications and skills required for all empty positions. After gathering of the detailed information, the company publishes their job advertisement with the help of sources like offline avenues and online avenues (Harrison, 2002). The offline sources are newspapers and television where are the online sources are search engine as well as various job posting websites on the open source internet.

The company is responsible for filtering the applications of people through automated software. in order to apply for position people should go to the respective Tesco website or third-party websites which drives into the job application at that is to website page and send their CV in case if with their job profile is the shortlisted. Test for has a policy of wasting no time to contact interested and deserving candidates. This is the reason why candidates get the opportunity to directly communicate their CV with the hiring manager at the HRM department (Hawkins, 1994). All recruitment drives in the company goes on for a specific date line and when the same is over the company starts itching and shortlisting applicants on the basis of their skill set in the first place followed by their actual qualification and then by their degree and certifications. Tesco recruitment drive is not based on prominent previous experience or actual work experience full step on the contrary the organisation looks out for basic skills which might be transformed into designated working skills in a specific work area (Marchington & Wilkinson, 1996).

Interview Pattern

The personnel from HRM department of Tesco initially conducts a telephonic interview with the Frontline of shortlisted candidates. After the interview over telephone is over Tesco HRM team moves on to the next role which is providing a brief induction of job responsibilities and rights to be enjoyed by the candidate. There is a transparency polishing the nature and environment by virtue of which the company does not want any candidate to join the company having any doubt or confusion against the deliverables and expectations (Mullins, 2005). The service by there is a general discussion involved in the 15 minutes telephone interview where the candidate not only speaks about their educational qualification but also compliments by speaking about the way in which their skill and educational competence will benefit the company. By virtue of this they can speak about their previous job experience and success achieved in that positions or their knowledge about job rights and responsibilities and so on. Every stage disco looks out for the job preparedness of a candidate only. After the telephonic interview it is the time for the final store interview. The final store interview is a predominant type of interview which is applicable for all candidates.

Tesco does not have the propensity of recruiting people directly from external resources in positions higher than executive managerial roles. Tesco hrm practice expect people to internal progress through stages in their course of employment with the company by learning values and expectations so that they become acquainted with the organisational culture of success. This is the reason why the final story interview is very vital (Reader, 1998). On the basis of telephonic interview, the HRM team of is code for words deserving candidates for end interaction with the HR managers who selects applicants on the basis of their interview results in the first round. In the final round the actual knowledge and skill of people are tested. Test for doesn’t expect people to have previous recruitment experience or specialisation training or certification. Nevertheless, if the same comes in handy to create an impression about the candidate’s knowledge about customer service, idea about work experiences specifications, work rights and responsibilities and so on, then the same is invited. It is because these are the elements which the HRM a manager is looking for as an end outcome from the final interview.

Candidate joining

The HRM team has a critical role in this position as well. After the final interview is over it is the responsibility of the HR managers in the company to directly send of a letter to the deserving candidates communicating them with expected date of joining and all other specifications of recruitment (Reid and Barrington, 1997).

Strategic HRM Policy

In the last year the profit margins of a square increased by 20% which to the company to record 2 billion therefore setting new milestone for the business. Tesco takes one out of every three pounds spent in supermarket and more than one of every 8 pounds spend on their High Street business change. The company is considered as the biggest private employer in the UK. The current human resource management strategy of the company is emphasized around the work simplification followed by challenging the non-registered regulation and implementing basic skills by all employees to exhibit better performance (Walton, 1999). Tesco expects all employees to counsel the scope of performance management in association with achieving steering wheel targets. It highlights that the human resource management strategy of the company is closed associated with performance management parameters.

The individual employees and opportunity of understanding their respective to contribute in pursuit of The Core values and purpose in the company. This is the reason why the nature and department of the organisation has recently engineering and innovative induction program catering to different cultures and learning styles and variable commitment towards job. A frontline employee has great value in the company and they are considered as the terminal reflection of organisational values and selling propositions towards customers. However, all employees at all level of hierarchy in the company has very integral role to play in reflecting the core values and maintaining the commitment made by the company to customers on a daily basis (Guest, 1999). To know about Tesco HRM, feel free to connect assignment help driven by Arabessay

One of the primary challenges faced by the company is ensuring that all of their employees are aware of the role that they play as individual and as a greater part of the organisation. The accomplishment of the above-mentioned objective is possible when they apply is able to see their actions reflected in the bigger picture and how they are contributing to the overall business growth. This is the reason why the HRM department incorporates a graphical journey during the induction and skill training of employees which takes them through the history of the company followed by its core objective and values. In the latest stage this journey takes them through the business objectives and financial objectives of the company and explain them in detail the operations and marketing pattern of a score with a manifestation of the commitment made by the company towards customers (Nixon, 2004).

The business strategy of Tesco considers the HRM department to play an integral and leading role to renter competitive advantage to the company over their competitors in a fiercely competitive supermarket sector. The HRM department of the organisation is created the strategic policy with the objective of freeing up store employees so that they can focus on improving the customer service outcome.

The future of better employee profiling at the company is based on providing a clear way of defining roles and responsibilities for the employees. The current system of human resource management guarantee that all employees should understand their responsibility and accountability is and consult among each other and with seniors and other designated individuals to understand how their job role reflect in the company. The company uses a group of 30 and management techniques for improvement of the core skills of the workforce. The HRM department is responsible for engineering training process involving the management techniques and ensuring that all employees achieve best outcomes through learning of these management techniques (Paauwe & Boselie, 2003). The techniques include the primary set of activities like root cause analysis followed by problem solving as well as the situation and learning and coaching for better performance among other techniques. Tesco has been following a centralised commanding strategy. However essay writer said recently the organisation has shifted to people based this strategy of performance. As a part of this strategy people are considered as the core element of strength in the company and it is rendered that all other assets in the organisation achieve maximum potential in terms of their respective functionality in the hands of the employees who drives them. The importance of this attitude is that employees exhibit hard work and innovation on individual project base is recognising the scope of driving betterment and expansion of the company (Poulter, 2005). There is a scope of organising active quarterly board meeting involving the human resource managers to review the human resource issues in the company and delegating solution for those issues. The company is responsible for tracking human resource information as close as they track financial outcomes. In the future Tesco has an intention of continuing emphasis on increase of skills of their workforce. The first objective is to make learning a part of actual integrated culture which is a very crucial way of developing flexibility and remaining one step ahead of the rivals (Rogers, 2004).

Analysis Of HR Practices At Tesco

Recognising the need of HRM and HR activities in the retail business profile has increased in recent times full studies on outcome of competition from various overseas companies which are trying to create a global retail environment like Tesco as well. In various countries like Japan, Germany or Sweden, there are various retail organisations which are trying to setup alternative competitive markets. In this regard all organisations require continuous investment for increasing strength of their employees also that they can actually my ties with any business environment and the situation in order to drive a stable success. However, the business environment of a country and a specific business environment of the industry has a difficult impact on the selected and strategies of a company. Treen (2000), highlights the difference in hard and soft HRM strategies. The heart and study chamber sizes on the company e related objectives and seldom relates with the individual concern of the employees. Therefore, according to this concept any judgment regarding the effectiveness of Tesco HRM will be based on the criteria of business performance on Vipul star on the contrary soft HRM also regards business performance as the main concern alongside advocating parallel concern for the outcome of the walkers. The appearance of the knowledge-based economy has a prominent implication for elements of growth, organising production and anticipating its impact on employment and the skill requirements (Whitelock, 2003).

It calls for search of new direction by the major and department of the company to tackle employee sustainability in the face of changing political environment and government policies. Recently the political forces in the UK appreciated and encouraged the lifelong learning strategy in the UK to have knowledge which will help employees to compete in the new economy. Tesco has complemented the expectations of the government in learning by introducing learning and training as a part of their strategic process. It can be argued that all companies need new skills to survive in the market (Leroy et al., 2018). However, without new thinking by the nature and team based on complexity and Chaos theory, it will not be possible for them to create a new vision for the company (Barnes, 2011). In the modern retail environment most companies are self-regulating and use open and the whole system. This is the reason why organisations are considered as living system which continuously requires to develop their skill and competence in order to sustain in a dynamic environment. To know more take instant assignment help from ArabEssay anytime,

Tesco has a process of strategic involvement of HRM strategies and their overall business plan. The managers in the department have been observed to utilise different aspects in decision-making aspects critically and align with the need of high commitment to the HRM dynamics therefore attempting to achieve acceptance from employees. The prominent picture of the strategic direction of the organisation is based on employee welfare. It helps the individual employees to understand their association with the company and therefore cover that extra mile to do whatever is required for the company (Karen, 1993). Therefore, the success strategy of the nature and department is placing high individual value on their individual human resource strength by motivating them to operate as a discrete leaving system within the organisation and achieve the best possible success for Tesco as organic entity. By virtue of this objective the organisation has increased to the process of training received by all employees on an individual basis (Kramar and Syed, 2012).

It is the outcome of the strategic objectives recently undertaken by the HR and department of the company. The current HR and department are no longer the administrative department. It works proactively to develop and execute strategies (Meighan and Meighan, 2000). The department of the company has recently emphasized on increasing training priority and the number of employees in the HRM department has been increased in order to facilitate the HRM performance. This practice emphasizes on instrument of growth by maintaining the same on a sustainable basis by equipment of the workforce with skills required in order to accomplish their task. Strategic HRM has gained credibility as well as popularity in the last decade particularly in relation to the impact on their organisational performance (Blum and Wall, 1997). Each employee is considered as a segment of overall strategy therefore instructing on the importance of their role. The training is delivered in a way encompassing the learning of new skills and allowing for cultural differences.

There is increased requirement for higher value to be placed on employees and therefore get the best of performance from the employees. Successful organisations have a strategy of keeping people issues in the front line of the thinking and at the core of their process of decision making and planning. Various researchers also articulate that the companies which get the people study right are likely to achieve better success in future (Hook and Jenkins, 2019). As Tesco is the biggest private employer in the UK States responsibility of people recruitment and management seriously. This attitude is reflected in the training and development policy of the company (Ivancevich and Konopaske, 2013). This has effect exceeded the government recommendations regarding employee training by successfully integrate in a lifelong learning as a part of their learning culture in the company. If you want to know more about Tesco research and development for your tuition assignment, assure online assignment help in Dubai right now from ArabEssay.


Considering the perspective of people management, a square has been a successful company. The integrated HRM department has left its mark in successful instrument of market share and expansion of retail units in the last 5 years. In conclusion it can be articulated that the integrated and strategic HRM policy is a major role player in the recent success of the company. Other companies can benefit from review of a school and policy. The model implementation of HRM and assimilation of external strategic elements by using the same to the benefit of the company has been A remarkable standpoint from the HRM department of the company. It can also be highlighted in conclusion that the frequent review and update of training policies has helped this quote to manager Global Business and highly profit in terms of better efficacy of employees at all hierarchy from training.

Reference List

Armstrong, M (2005) (9th Edition) A Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice Kogan Page, London

Beardwell, I. et al, (2004) (4th Edition) Human Resource Management a Contemporary Approach Prentice Hall, Harlow.

Blackwood T, (1995) Accounting for Business Business education Publishers Limited, Sunderland

Garrick (1999) Informal Learning in the Workplace: unmasking human resource development, Routledge Press, London.

Harrison, R (2002) (3rd Edition) Learning and Development: CIPD Publishing, London

Hawkins, P. (1994), The changing view of learning in Burgoyne, J., Pedler, M. and Boydell, T., Towards the Learning Company: Concepts and Practices, McGraw Hill, London.

Marchington, M. & Wilkinson, A. (1996) Core Personnel and Development IPD Publishing, London.

Mullins, L (2005) (7th Edition) Management and Organisational Behaviour Prentice Hall, Pearson Education, Edinburgh

Reader A, Strategic Human Resource Management (1998) Sage Publications, Pitman, London

Reid, M. and Barrington, H. (1997). (5th edition) Training Interventions: Managing Employee Development IPD Publishing, London.

Walton, J (1999), Strategic Human Resource Development,

Guest, D (1999) Human Resource Management–The Workers’ Verdict Human Resource Management Journal, London, 1999.Vol.9, Iss. 3;

Nixon, B. (2004) Creating a cultural revolution: the 21st century challenge for HRD Training Journal, Ely: Oct 2004

Paauwe, J & Boselie, P. (2003) Challenging ‘Strategic HRM’ And The Relevance Of The Institutional Setting Human Resource Management Journal 2003.Vol.13,

Poulter, S. (2005) 2billion Tesco, Daily Mail. London (UK): Apr 13th 2005

Rogers, S. (2004) Power To The People Managers People Management, London: Sep 2004. Vol. 10

Treen, D. (2000) Strategic Human Resources Ivey Business Journal, Jan/Feb 2000.Vol.64,

Whitelock, N. (2003)Tesco’s new recruits see the big picture training & Management Development Methods Bradford: 2003.Vol.17, Iss. 1

Barnes, R. (2011). The great Tesco beauty gamble (the Tesco supermarket chain’s marketing strategy for breaking into the UK beauty services market). Strategic Direction, 27(7).

Karen (1993). NHS market gets me a job down at Tesco. Nursing Standard, 8(4), pp.41-42.

Meighan, M. and Meighan, M. (2000). Induction training. London: Kogan Page.

Blum, M. and Wall, J. (1997). HRM: Managing conflicts in the firm. Business Horizons, 40(3), pp.84-87.

Hook, C. and Jenkins, A. (2019). Introducing Human Resource Management. Harlow, United Kingdom: Pearson Education Limited.

Ivancevich, J. and Konopaske, R. (2013). Human resource management. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Kramar, R. and Syed, J. (2012). Human Resource Management in a Global Context. Palgrave Macmillan.

Leroy, H., Segers, J., van Dierendonck, D. and den Hartog, D. (2018). Managing people in organizations: Integrating the study of HRM and leadership. Human Resource Management Review, 28(3), pp.249-257.

Watch, C. (2021) Tesco Company Profile – Corporate Available at: (Accessed: 1 September 2021)

Global Marketing: How Do Companies Incorporate Standardization?

Global Marketing

The primary components of any business plan are associated with promotion of product. It is important to develop efficient and result-oriented marketing as well as advertising strategy particularly for your product to acquire international sales. In this case, the business may consider using a global standardization of marketing for the product is followed by gaining a large customer base and increase of sales as well as profit (Lee and Griffith, 2019). Global standardization in marketing is a standardized approach towards marketing activities which can be international utilised. This marketing strategy helps in working across diverse cultures and various nations in promoting the same product. And important example of the organisation which uses global standardization is Coca-Cola. That the organisation uses standard brands for standard formulation standard packaging and positioning strategy the global markets.

Importance Of Global Standardization

The advancement of technology as well as fast and communication has made global connectivity easier than before. For each economy, standardization depends on marketing important tools and techniques for a multinational organisation which reaches throughout the globe. By defining a unified marketing Framework effective across multiple time zones an organisation can save time and money in the marketing efforts in the marketing strategies in every region is unnecessary (Rao-Nicholson and Khan, 2017).

Variable market has different 110 degrees as. Coronavirus 1 market might view soda is a common place whereas other market can perceive so that to be a luxury. The application of global standardization towards marketing as a humanized so that a might not decide to work in a specific region. This is the reason because of which organisations need to develop specific case of specific countries on the basis of the specific economic status of the country (Ratten, 2017). Any poor country where inhabitants have less disposable income will not respond to a marketing strategy to which works in a more favourable economy.

Difference In Marketing Effort

Any business owner using global standardization for marketing of products also encountered the risk of losing a large number of local businesses to the local company who can customise their goods and also their marketing strategies on the basis of the preferences of the local population. For evidence is there is a global fast-food chain selling hamburgers on an international base is it can lose local customers to the local competitors of the credibility of customers in hamburgers according to the popular taste in a specific area. In these instances, it is important to adopt the global marketing tactics to the specific local markets whenever required. For evidence is research highlights that Parisians enjoy avocado on burgers then the burgers sold in Paris should also include the same in radiant (Venaik and Midgley, 2019).

Can We Standardise Multinational Marketing?

From the perspective of multinational marketing is the differences existing between various nations are great and dynamic. In previous times these differences allowed US based organisations to perceive it strategy in every country strictly as a local issue. However in recent times a situation has undergone changes and the experience of increasing number of multinational organisations suggest that there exists a real for tension again to be considered as a part of standardization of various elements of marketing program to be used in various areas (De Mooij, 2018). Marketing assignment help derived the gain ranges from substantial cost savings and consistency in dealing with customers to better planning as well as control and exploring ideas with universal appeal the one of the most important elements discussed in the past decade has been emergence of multinational organisations as essential computers ever growing industries. As trade values in Western Europe and in other areas diminishing there are more companies which found attractive opportunities for expansion in other countries than their traditional market (He and Wang, 2017). For some of the is the operations abroad become so extensive and complex that in order to acquire a significant change in organisation and operating methods is required to diversification of their own strategy. The problem encountered by management is actually multinational organisations different degree and kind of traditional organisational working.

Details About Marketing

Importance of multinational organisation system-related large number of comment and advice followed by conference and seminar and survey which increased the scope of distinctive financial as well as legal accounting as well as organisational and personnel problems of this new kind of enterprises.

Some of the eminent marketers advocated the adoption of uniform advertising approach on the basis that fundamental consumer motives are essentially the same in every location. The proposition often has a partisan tone especially for executives of large advertising agencies with the international network of subsidiary as well as affiliate office. Then the question of advertising approaches cannot be considered realistic isolation from the elements of the marketing mix of a company in individual markets incorporating product line for packaging as well as pricing and distribution system as well as a sales force and other promotional methods. It is considered to be practical to counter the development of a marketing strategy in the context of all elements or multinational escape (Brotspies and Weinstein, 2019). However there is great debate regarding the same. In this regard a conventional wisdom suggests that the multinational efforts will not be realistic however on account of great differences among Nations it will still exist. For evidence, George Weissman the president of Philip Morris incorporated that until we achieve one world there is no such thing as international marketing only local marketing so the world. Apparently the other marketing executives agree with this perception. Marketing is conspicuous on the basis of absence from functions which can be planned at corporate headquarters level. The operating experience of various international organisations needs to confirm desirability of assignment of long-range planning of the marketing activities to the local managers. The prevailing view then is that the marketing strategy local problem or not (Yates and Murphy, 2019). The best strategy for organisation differs from country to country and design of the study should be left to the local management in each of the countries. If you need much information on marketing mix, connect term paper help of ArabEssay.

Two Sided Case

The experiences of living USA based organisations in recent years suggest that there might be something to be said in favour of two multinational marketing strategies. It is intended to outline possibilities as well as limitations of integrated approach to international marketing. All companies ensure application of common marketing policies in various countries for benefits. The relative importance of pros and cons vary from one industry to another and from one company to another first for the benefits are sufficiently universal as well as important to accomplish full analysis by Management which is virtually the case of any multinational company. The management should not generally dismiss the conceptualization of standard as in some of their marketing strategies at least in the major areas in this world (Cihon, 2019).

The Benefits Of Standardization

As a practical context standardization is not a clear tissue. In literal sense the multinational standardization mean of having identical product lines at identical prices throughout identical distribution system which has been submitted by identical promotional campaigns in various countries. At other extreme the completely localised marketing strategies containing no common elements should be considered. There is either of the extreme which are feasible or desirable. In this case the practical question is which particular elements in a marketing strategy can be standardized or should be standardized and to what extent. At present as said by essay typer majority of multinational organisations recruit strategies which are very close to localised end of the spectrum in comparison to the opposite pole (Williamson, 2021). In case if there are potential benefit of increase in standardization it will be achieved by including more common elements within the multinational spectrum of strategy poster individual marketing aspects of policy should be considered in first and then in context to other elements cool stuff we should examine the important benefits of standardization is a part of multinational marketing strategy.

Significant Cost Savings

The difference in level of national income for artists and other factors dictate the requirement for local product as well as the corresponding local marketing program. Countless examples are available in annual international business reports. It is implied for apparently similar Nations like USA or Canada. For example, Phillips Morris tried to convert Canadian smokers into one of the popular American cigarette brands however with and successful in tension. Canadian wood brother fight then preserve their tradition of reference of the Virginia type of tobacco plants schools the example of this kind demonstrate that in order to obtain maximum sales in the country organisation should offer products as well as packages advertisement and use the marketing channel which are customised to the distinctive requirements and the desire of any country. Nevertheless maximization of sales should not be the only objectives in development of a marketing strategy post of profitability largely depend on sale and cost and there should be important opportunities for reducing cost in comparison to standardization (Leonidou et al., 2018). As per university assignment help the  most obvious opportunity and the most important for the matter are cost saving in case of product design. Offering the basic same product in various markets with a possible difference in functional as well as design aspects help the manufacturer in achieving a longer production run for it by spreading research and development cost over a great volume and therefore reduced the average unit cost.

Italian Invasion

Henry ford first demonstrated mass production economy by means of standardization however the same concept was dramatically repeated by the Italian household appliance industry during the 1960. In the middle of 1950 the combined Italy and production of refrigerator and washing machines with less than 3 million units since there were no potentially a manufacturer’s. In my only 3% of the household refrigerator and only one person hand washing machine schools the initiating in the late 1950 there were several campaigns of aggressive product development followed by marketing (Westjohn and Magnusson, 2017). Ironically, frequent Italian entrepreneurs applied lessons learnt from America as well as. A member of the Fumagalli family who are the owner of the appliances company called Candy and a prisoner of world in USA brought back the idea of washing machine in every home. The appliance manufacturing companies in Italy installed highly automated equipment which are modern and also invested their profit and produced simple and standardise product by large number. By the end of 1965 the refrigerant output was about 2.6 million units and the output for washing machine was 1.5 million units. This volume was sold within in deliberately and the home ownership of two appliances increased by 15% and 20% respectively. Wherever the Italian organisations and aggressive in export marketing followed by handmade manufacturers in 1965 accounting for 30% of the overall French market and also 40 to 50% of the overall Benelux market. In fact in German the home market of electrical giants like Bosch as well as Siemens attained about 12% share of the market (Kotabe and Helsen, 2020). The pattern of export of washing machines followed the same of that of refrigerators and by 1965 Italian exports account for about 10 to 15% of the market sales in measure theory of the Western European Nations. To know more take assistance from coursework help team of Arabessay

Use of it again in the appliance industry has been painful experience for traditional leaders like American or British or German and the smaller print organisations which implemented tariff protection. Whirlpool Corporation acquired France’s refrigerator plant in 1962 and also least the factory to French computers. The frigidaire company decided in 1967 to shut down refrigerator production in France. By competing with other European appliance manufacturers in Italy and organisations benefited from the national debt what does it take to reduce to wage rate as well as government is potentially useful stuff however the production of simple as well as a standardized products has also been equally important. According to fortune magazine the refrigerated started to look more and more like national preferences in terms of product design and it paved the way for international sheer line style.

Turnabout At Hoover

In order to compete with Italian invention various manufacturers tried adopting new approaches towards the one of the important examples in distillation is the introduction of new kind of automatic washing machine by Hoover Company which is a market leader. In accordance with cheap assignment help provider the previous automatic version of the company introduced in 1961 was primarily developed for the market of Britain. The new models of the company however featured the exclusive pulsator washing action followed by tilted and enamelled steel drum and the hot water acquired from the central hot water heater of the home. On the contrary maturity of European manufacturers including Italy and produce service develop the front loading as well as stumble action washing machine having stainless steel drum and the self contained water heater (Strange and Humphrey, 2019). In spite of the position of Hoover washing machines are gradually started declining in comparison to the other brands which followed the Italian design. However the next time when the management of Hoover washing machine started designing new line of product in 1965 is decided to look for single basic designs which will meet the needs of housewives in France followed by Germany as well as Scandinavia of UK. There was a committee incorporating representatives of the continent of subsidiary as well as the parent company who were worldwide corporation of New York spending large number of weeks in order to find a mutually acceptable specification over the new line of the product. The result was that when the new version went on sale in 1967 it was a front loading and trump election machine which was the closure in context with the continental design in comparison to the previous washing machines however it had provisions for the hot water filled as well as a normal distal drum on the models which was sold in UK region. Online assignment writer said standardized maturity of the primary design elements between the new machines. For the organisation was able to make significant savings over the development costs as well as tooling and the cost of unit production.

Other Economies

The potential economies standardization is not associated with product design decision. In various industries the packaging cost represents a significant aspect of overall cost of. In this place is standardization offers the possibility of savings. Charles William represents the case of food processor sales who prepared soups about Europe in case of food processors in 11 different packages. The company had the observation that he could achieve significant savings of cost along with the reduction of consumer confusion by packaging standardization. However another aspect of cost saving is advertising for major packaged goods manufacturers production of the elements like artwork for a film as well as various advertising materials accounted for millions of dollars cost. However difference in language reduces the degree of standardization which can be imposed and there are some common elements which can also be used to stop in this regard it can be illustrated that Pepsi cola bottling is done in 465 plants and also sold in more than 100 countries other than the USA. Only a fraction of its foreign advertising is done by films. According to the top marketing executives of the company and  do my essay makers the company found that is able to produce commercial films overseas in a specific market and if those are planned appropriately then it can account for great sales in the international market (Bradford, 2020). Nevertheless it is evident that the same strategy is not applicable for all the international markets. According to the estimates provided by the organisation that issued the cost of production of separate films for respective market will be 8 million dollars for every year. The above examples clearly articulate that the similar basic point is evident. It is standardization of product design for packaging as well as promotional materials which offers important economies to the multinational marketing agents. Even if these cost savings have been achieved at the expense of the lower sales in some markets, there should be some positive outcome of the profit as well.

Consistency With The Customers

Quite different from the viability of cost reduction there are some multinational organisations moving towards standardization for achievement of consistency in dealing with customers. This company executive perceive that consistency in product style as well as sales and customer service is eminent as is so in case of brand name and packaging and generally in the image projected to customers which is powerful means of increasing sales output. In case if all customers lived incommunicado behind respective national frontiers there is no point in working about the matter (Kotabe and Helsen, 2020). Only the diplomatic couriers as well as some cross border guards will be noticing inconsistency in product followed by service as well as from ocean. However in reality this course of action is not valid. The most visible kind of cross-border flow in international travel is exhibited by tourist and businessman applicable. Particularly in Europe with relatively high income level and short distance people visiting other countries reached flood proportions in 1960 and exhibited no sign of abating. Feel free to connect student assignment help in case you need information to write a tuition assignment.


Standardization in global marketing insurance that is specific goods or performance is the delivered in the same way by means of some set guidelines for which property is used in trading stock for the community as well as future marketing in order to allow greater liquidity followed by efficiency as well as cost reduction. Development of marketing strategies is a primary concern for multinational organisations. The generic decision is associated with marketing with the standardized approach where marketing practices will be informed and uniform throughout the globe for on the basis of a differentiated approach where the messages will be customised for specific markets. it’s typically offers significant cost benefit. Nevertheless if the message is working universally then the organisation need not make a great expenditure for development of customers marketing messages. However the organisation has the responsibility of adopting the language to the local markets and the conceptual premise of the messages should also remain constant. In this case, it requires a powerful brand theme as well as a global appeal in accompaniment with the standardized approach we should have the peoples of the world to share the same value proposition offered by the brand.

Reference List

Bradford, A., 2020. The Brussels effect: How the European Union rules the world. Oxford University Press, USA.

Brotspies, H. and Weinstein, A., 2019. Rethinking business segmentation: A conceptual model and strategic insights. Journal of strategic marketing27(2), pp.164-176.

Cihon, P., 2019. Standards for AI governance: international standards to enable global coordination in AI research & development. Future of Humanity Institute. University of Oxford.

De Mooij, M., 2018. Global marketing and advertising: Understanding cultural paradoxes. Sage.

He, J. and Wang, C.L., 2017. How global brands incorporating local cultural elements increase consumer purchase likelihood: An empirical study in China. International Marketing Review.

Kotabe, M.M. and Helsen, K., 2020. Global marketing management. John Wiley & Sons.

Lee, H.S. and Griffith, D.A., 2019. The balancing of country-based interaction orientation and marketing strategy implementation adaptation/standardization for profit growth in multinational corporations. Journal of International Marketing27(2), pp.22-37.

Leonidou, L.C., Katsikeas, C.S., Samiee, S. and Aykol, B., 2018. International marketing research: A state-of-the-art review and the way forward. Advances in global marketing, pp.3-33.

Rao-Nicholson, R. and Khan, Z., 2017. Standardization versus adaptation of global marketing strategies in emerging market cross-border acquisitions. International Marketing Review.

Ratten, V., 2017. Gender entrepreneurship and global marketing. Journal of Global Marketing30(3), pp.114-121.

Strange, R. and Humphrey, J., 2019. What lies between market and hierarchy? Insights from internalization theory and global value chain theory. Journal of International Business Studies50(8), pp.1401-1413.

Venaik, S. and Midgley, D.F., 2019. Archetypes of marketing mix standardization-adaptation in MNC subsidiaries: Fit and equifinality as complementary explanations of performance. European Journal of Marketing.

Westjohn, S.A. and Magnusson, P., 2017. Export performance: a focus on discretionary adaptation. Journal of International Marketing25(4), pp.70-88.

Williamson, B., 2021. Making markets through digital platforms: Pearson, edu-business, and the (e) valuation of higher education. Critical Studies in Education62(1), pp.50-66.

Yates, J. and Murphy, C.N., 2019. Engineering rules: global standard setting since 1880. JHU Press.

Explain The Energy Markets Economic Potential

Energy Markets’ Economic Potential


The energy market in the world is at the pace of revolution fueled up by innovation triggered by decarbonization. History says, with increase disposable income, the standard of living, consumption of energy has been increased drastically.  Despite the fact that how many years exhausted in making the whole world fully supplied with energy identified as countless. From medieval times to the 20th centuries reforms in energy supply have met mixed success in achieving greater demand-supply participation. However, in the past 8 years, participation of household and small businesses remains minimal. In 2017, a new market aggregate was introduced to provide FCAS services.

As per the IEA, 2020 report, global energy demand is expected to increase by 4.5% in 2020 supported by rebounding economic activities. A number of factors influence the global energy demand growth of renewable energy nuclear power in the tight spot of non-renewable sources application. Recently demand from non-renewable resources has decreased by 3% among them coal was the hardest hit energy accounted 4.4% drop known as the largest decline made in history. A regressive study is followed in this article to determine the potential energy marketing economic potential. 


The energy market contributes to economic growth in two ways- first energy is creating jobs and value by extracting energy and transforming the goods and service throughout the economy secondly underpin rest of the economies nearly referred as input of all goods and services. For instance, in 2009, the energy industry is accounted 4 % GDP of the USA (Yeager and Sharma, 2019). Some countries who are heavenly dependent on the energy export whose GDP is even higher. 

It’s been a long axiomatic that energy and economic growth is interlinked that means if energy demand increases, economic growth will be increased automatically. That’ been a case since the dawn of industrialization, But in the latest study, demand of the 55 types of energy from the 30 countries reflecting decoupling of energy demand and economic growth. In past decades energy demand and economic growth pronounced even bit higher since there is no region of the world that will be energy-hungry. Indeed energy landscape is poised to be a foundational change from now and 2050. 

Energy Industrialization- A Slow Pace

In the past two centuries, energy tracked with long economic growth and the economy has to lock it off to make the value it creates economies viable. At the same time, wealth creation depended on the burning times. During 18oo, energy come from the fallen biomass, like people burn the fallen tree, but at the end of the 18th century when the USA and Europe begun industrialized creation of enormous energy points up from distinct sources. Like it is said by the assignment writer biomass is highly inefficient as fuel because the entire energy embodied was lost at the time of burning. Before industrialization, energy loss could be bearable but the resulting wealth was not enormous. Similarly, when energy has been converted into electricity, its demand will increase by 1% since 1950 (IREA, 2020). 

In the 20th century, the demand for energy and economic growth both accelerated in different ways. GDP per capita in 1950 was twice that of 1900 in the USA and from that level of wealth creation, burning other forms of biomass would not be sufficient. 

Moving onwards it has been seen in many cases, living standards of people in the west and other advanced economies rising. Those dynamics continued to be expanded as china helped the global GDP rise by 3.7% by the year 2020(IEA, 2020). 

Accessing Economic Impact Of Increased Global Energy Demand

Energy is input to nearly every product and service also underpins the activities at each economic level. In this sense, the power sector continues to attract the majority of new investments. The relationship between the energy sector and the economy questioned a transformed energy system. As we have discussed energy sector contributing to GDP and employment for instance it predicts the national dialogue. 

However, when energy grows, proportionate investment in the energy sector will also get uplifted. In order to analyze the potential benefits the energy sector serves, investors identified to invest large sums of capital towards renewable energy development. Many assignment makers believed investment in the renewable sector has to be increased substantially.

As per IRENA. Org report investment in global renewable sources at REmap Case should be lied in between USD 500 billion to USD 750 billion till 2030. IRENA’s REthinking Energy: Renewable Energy and Climate Change reported investment in power sector reach to at least USD 400 billion in 2020 further needed to extend up to USD 600 billion in 2030. As the report estimated this projection in global power tends to support the investment by 1.8% (Price and Keppo, 2017). Meanwhile, when energy demand meets renewable targets, it would become easier to configure economic benefits for the environment as well. However, the persistent question still produces scepticism whether the potential investment yields satisfactory outcomes or not. Many experts believed the realizing observation of positive macroeconomic factors is equally important in eliminating the investment gap. Current trends show the investment will be likely to be the same as in 2030. Public funding stakeholder investment will behave the same as catalyst fueling investment needs of renewable sources.

How Economic Changes Affects The Global Energy Sector

The investment needs in the global energy sector not only fell when GDP rises even it can be traced at the sectoral level. The general deployment of renewable sources is likely to influence the other sectors but the benefits incur will be largely enjoyed by one produces goods and services at the global level. Few sectors like engineering, construction and manufacturing would likely be impacted largest as these sectors are completely dependent on volatile demand of goods and services investment. In fact, these sectors barely recovered from the financial crisis negatively being affected with covid invasion. If a large amount of investment is done in this sector, the economic output tends to be increased by 1.3% ( Guo, 2019).

The main energy drivers of the majority of Middle East countries are petroleum, coal, natural gases and renewable sources. Globally petroleum and other fuels are including biodiesel and biofuels most prevalent of energy being utilized at a massive level. 

No doubt the energy industry is an engine of growth that serves huge input for goods and services produced, but how energy is utilized differ country to country. The energy sector in economics drives employment transforms and spread goods and services. Jobs are instrumental to achieve the maximum output from the energy sector beyond those core-wide societal goals influenced with economic wide productivity, poverty level, improved sustainability in post conflicts societies. At the global level, online assignment help experts said, the continuous drop of non-renewable sources and their prices have had a serious impact energy sector. Despite this, in many Arabian countries, experts noticed the growing renewable sources seeing as a bright side of employment. But the employment generated from the renewable sector varies greatly like Solar Photovoltaic provides generate more jobs in comparison to the windmill. Currently, it accounted for 4 million jobs across the globe as per the 2014 census. 

World Energy OutLook

The energy sector is one of the largest capital consuming industries in the world. As per the 2011 world energy outlook., IEA, estimated US$ 38 trillion global energy investment will be needed to meet global energy demand in 2035. Also, the investment requirements per worker are higher than in any other sector. For instance sole in the USA, the investment requirement per worker is $ 176,000 in the past 10 years; meanwhile, the compensatory cost is US$101,000 per worker. Hence it can be said, energy sector companies invest at least 70% capital on the worker. Henceforth the flow of capital from the energy industry to at individual level creates additional jobs, increase GDP and tax revenues (Liko, Gentian. 2019). 

Source- IEA, 2020

Determining the impact of the supplier network on the energy sector is also crucial. Countries have energy handling skilled laborers retain benefits domestically. On the other side, the impact on those countries that could not produce skilled labor would be lower. 

Looking beyond energy sector expansion, employment in the border energy sector will be increased in both cases whether huge investment takes place renewable sources or Fossil fuel get disseminate. As per the world outlook, employment in fossil fuel has been decreasing steadily with lowering demand, on the other side, nuclear energy remains stable. 

A High Pattern Shift Of Global Share Into Renewable Energy

Globalization permits the exchange of goods and services at a wider range thereby act a key enabler for economic growth. The past two decades have eyewitness the increase in export in many developing countries including Middle East countries quadrupling 6.3 trillion in 1995 to USD 23.4 trillion in 2014(Brockway, 2019). 

Consequently, the global GDP has increased by 30% in 2014. Assignment help experts of ArabEssay have noticed world fuels exports have increased than any other traded products. An annual growth accounted in these years accounted 12%. Measure in US dollars, energy export was eight times higher in 2014 than in 1995. Henceforth it can be said, in 2014. Global energy trade reported 17% of the whole GDP of the world. Currently, most of the countries are not fuel importers, some countries are exporters benefitted greatly. Countries like CHINA, India, Japan spend 7% of their GDP to import fuel. In this case, a miracle could be happened if these countries make a route towards implementing an ample segment of renewable energy sources.

These values in magnitude are larger enough when compared with public health expenditure. Global opportunities of focusing on installation of renewable sources definitely benefitting all the economies similar enhance the employment rate and meeting the global energy demand will become much easier. 

Overall trade will be higher in 2030, than in today times. The analysis showed the impact of global dependency on renewable sources would be larger enough because every time it is assumed doubling the investment in the renewable sector and decreasing in non-renewable energy by 40 million $. The movement of global energy trade will be impacted largely by three factors defined below-

Reducing dependency on fossil fuels with varying impaction of fossil fuel exportation

The demand for goods and services has to be increased like investment in the renewable energy sector. The impact of demand for renewable energy will be resulted from growing or lowering GDP

Since the capital investment nature of energy is quite alluring, it is usually assumed GDP will be highly influenced by the expansion of the energy system. To know more about recent trends in global energy outlook, take instant assignment help  from ArabEssay


Energy is life of economy or a crucial component nearly for all the goods and services manufacturing industry. To the best compilation of recent trends in energy outlook, this report concluded when energy grow, proportionate investment in the energy sector will get uplifted also In order to analyze the potential benefits the energy sector serves, investors identified to invest large sums of capital towards renewable energy development. It is also defined in this study Jobs are instrumental to achieve the maximum output from the energy sector beyond those core wide societal goals influenced with economic wide productivity, poverty level, improved sustainability in post conflicts societies. Meanwhile, when energy demand meets with renewable targets, it would become easier to configure economic benefits for the environment as well.


Brockway, P.E., Owen, A., Brand-Correa, L.I. and Hardt, L., 2019. Estimation of global final-stage energy-return-on-investment for fossil fuels with comparison to renewable energy sources. Nature Energy, 4(7), pp.612-621.

Liko, Gentian. 2019. Impacts of Energy Sector on Economy, Social and Political Landscape, and Sustainable Development. 10.13140/RG.2.2.12626.91847.

Iea.2020. Annual average growth rates of electricity demand in selected regions, 2001-2020. Available at-

Price, J. and Keppo, I., 2017. Modelling to generate alternatives: A technique to explore uncertainty in energy-environment-economy models. Applied energy, 195, pp.356-369.

 Yeager.K. Energy and Economy. Available at-

Trygested.C Sharma. N. 2019. The decoupling of GDP and energy growth: A CEO guide. Available at-

World Economic Forum. 2020. Energy for Economic Growth. Available at-


IEA.2020. Electricity. Available at-

Guo, Z., Zhou, K., Zhang, C., Lu, X., Chen, W., & Yang, S. (2018). Residential electricity consumption behavior: Influencing factors, related theories and intervention strategies. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 81, 399-412.

Risks And Benefits Associated With Advanced Mobile Banking Technology

Mobile Banking Technology 


Mobile banking is the way of making financial transactions with the support of the mobile. It is defied that mobile banking is the easiest process to send money abroad with full protection. Mobile banking has both advantages and disadvantages as it provides huge support to the customers so that they feel comfortable while sending their money abroad. Nowadays mobile banking is the most convenient way to transfer money to friends, merchants, and any other person with the support of the device. The banks provide a security code to the customers so that they can log in to the application with the help of that code. The client also needs to have a secure connection before utilizing the net banking application as many fraudulent activities occur while using net banking facilities in mobile phones. Nowadays the cybersecurity is well developed to protect the personal information of the clients properly so that they can perfom the tasks in mobile banking easily. The banks also charge a minimum amount for net banking and this saves the time of the customers and they feel safe while using the newt banking benefit. The connection needs to be private and secure so that no one can hack the personal information of the clients. The usage of the public networks while doing payments may result in thefts of money and this will affect the personal information of the clients. It provides various services to the customers with the help of mobile banking as the customers can perform everything by sitting at their home. This also supports the customers to receive the funds directly into their mobile numbers and this is the best way to save time and be casual while making payments. The banks providing satisfaction to the customers so that they feel safe while making the payments. 


The mobile banking technology supported the clients to open their accounts by sitting at their homes. It also provides support to the customers while making any fixed deposit or anything else as it also reveals the interest rates with the support of the mobiles. The customers can also purchase anything and can order cheque books and debit cards with the help of a mobile banking application. This also makes the customers comfortable and encourages them to use advanced mobile banking technology. According to the research, it is identified that a maximum number of clients reveal that it will be useful if the user of mobile banking applications is much easier. The mobile banking app also supports the customers to make payments easily. Many essay writer observed that till now many people are not relaying with mobile banking applications due to huge risks. Mobile banking also provides opportunities to the clients to know their account balance by entering into the application. The clients can also access everything in the application with the support of the OTP (one-time-password). This is the most credential thing that the customers need to protect. If this gets revealed the customer will face a huge problem and fraudulent activities will occur.

Importance Of Mobile Banking

The banks provide support to the businessman to save their time and perform the tasks appropriately with the support of mobile banking applications. This is best for small and medium scale businesses as they can transfer huge amounts of money to any other account easily with the help of mobile banking applications at zero cost. It provides huge satisfaction to the customers and makes them feel comfortable while making transfers. Financial transactions become very easy for people with the help of mobile banking applications. Mobile banking also supports the customers to apply for ATM cards and cheque books in the apps. This is also known as doorstep banking. The banks also provide the idea regarding the interest rates to the customers so that they feel comfortable while investing their money with the support of the bank. It is also defied that the indispensable usage of tablets and mobiles encouraged people to use mobile banking services. These services support the customers to make their payments easily and effectively. It is also defined that if the customers face any problems regarding mobile banking services they complain to the bank regarding it. They also provide ideas on how to develop the design of the application and improve the services. It is also identified that around 60% of people like to use mobile banking services to make their banking-related tasks easily and effectively. Nowadays the use of mobile banking services is important as well as dangerous. The people who use mobile banking services reveal that it is somewhat safe. According to the banks, and assignment help UAE it is enumerated that the services need to be used by installing particular applications of the bank. The customers must not use any type of browser while using mobile banking services.  

Advantages Of Mobile Banking

The advantages of mobile banking are enumerated below:

  • The mobile banking service is the best way to save time and make banking-related tasks more convenient. It is identified that a maximum number of people like to perform their tasks in mobile banking applications as they don’t need to go to the bank and stay in a line for their turn to come. The mobile banking application can be accessed 24*7 and this makes the clients comfortable using the mobile banking services. In this covid situation, the people can keep their health safe by not reaching into the banks and this reduces the time of the client. The customers can also perform everything related to the bank by staying at home and can send money to any corner of the world.
  • The online mobile banking application also supports the customers to optimize their money. It is enumerated that optimization helps the customers to think less about their money and this improves the spending of the customers. The spending of the customers also gets high due to online banking services as they don’t think about the money more. This also improves the lifestyle of the person easily. This also maintains a proper transaction in the bank of the customers. The customers also receive proper information from the application. They don’t have to call the branch to gather any information. The money of the customer also remains safe in online banking services. Get to know more about online banking and central banks protocols from plagiarism free assignment help Kuwait of ArabEssay
  • The security level in mobile banking apps is high nowadays. The customer can protect the data of the banking application by maintaining fingerprints and face locks. The bank provides a username and password to the customers but for more advanced protection the customers keep fingerprints and face lock to protect the data so that if the device gets lost then the person who will get it cannot open the device and cannot make any transactions. The banking applications also provide the location of the transaction to find the fraud easily. Nowadays the utilization of online banking services is increased highly. 55% of people utilize online banking services.
  • The benefit of paying IOUs is also there in online banking services. The customer can pay someone within some minutes if they know the name and email address, of the person. The online mobile banking application also provides safe and secure services to customers. The bank across the country has a link with Zelle through which the customers can easily send money to anyone by staying at their home. The bank also provides a refund if the money does not enter into the recipient bank./ this is the best way to keep the money safe. The routing and account number also support the customers to send money to anyone with the help of the application.
  • The control of spending also remains with the customers. As the customer has the remote control of his/her money. The customer can send money to someone whenever wishes and this saves them time and this the most convenient way to send money to someone. In some banks, the customers also get the facility of activating new debit or credit cards from the applications, and this supports the customers to do everything by staying at home. According to the research, it is identified that in this Covid situation the online banking services are the most effective way to perform the transactions.
  • Mobile banking services also provide tailored options to customers. As if they like to change the name of a dead person from the bank account they can easily apply in the applications and within some hours they can change the name. This is hassle-free. The mobile banking application also solves the problems related to money transaction and make the customer comfortable and encourages him to choose online banking services. The customers can also apply for a cheque book with the help of a mobile banking application. The customers can also create fixed deposit account with the help of online banking services.  
  • The clarity regarding the financial data is also provided to the customers. The customers get proper information regarding the transactions and they get to know where their money is going and this makes them alert regarding lower their expenses. The bank also maintains the information related to the applications which have the data of the customers and provides the details of the application where their bank details are given. So, that the customer remain alert and this protect the money of the customers and encourage them to utilize net banking services. The bank also provides proactive control to the consumers so that they know where their money is whether it is safe or not safe.

According to recent research conducted by essay writing help professional, it is identified that a maximum number of people like to use net banking services to save their time and to reduce the public gathering. As it is observed that in this pandemic situation people need to maintain social distancing so net banking s the better idea to maintain this as customers can perform their banking activities by staying at their home and can transfer money in any corner of the world. The banks also charge a nominal amount for transferring money and make this convenient so that every people can perform it. This also reduces the workload of the bank employees and they also feel comfortable while performing their tasks. The amount of money that is charged to the customers is very low and every person can afford it. Mobile banking is also a very popular method as through it the balance can be checked. The customers can watch their accounts 24*7 so there is a low rate of fraud. The customers also protect their accounts with face lock and pattern and with Id and password given from the bank. This encourages the customers to perform net banking as it is the easiest way to do banking activities.       

Risks Associated With Mobile Banking Technology

The risks associated with mobile banking technology are:

  • Fraudulent activities are the things that may occur while performing mobile banking. The customers may face problems when they lose the device the criminal gets access to the mobile banking of the customers and due to this, fraudulent activities occur.
  • The bank also charges a significant charge for the users who use mobile banking regularly and this also reduces the money of the customers and they face a huge problem.
  • Hackers can easily hack mobile devices and can access the mobile banking of customers and due to this many theft cases occurs. The hackers gain more by doing simple work as there are 4.5 million computers and 1.5 million mobile so it is not that difficult to hack the mobile devices.
  • Many fraud SMS also comes in the mobile phones and many cases, the customers perform the activities without thinking and it affects the bank balance of the customers and this reduces the money of the customers.
  • In the rural areas, the mobile banking application cannot be accessed as it requires a high internet connection and in those rural areas the connectivity is very low so the people cannot access the mobile banking application in that case.
  • The encryption security of the technology must be there to protect the personal information of the customers. The customers of the bank need to observe that whether the bank technology has encryption security or not. There is a huge chance of interception if there is no encryption security. According to assignment helper hackers can hack the device with the help of public wifi. The banks need to invest more money in encryption security technology. 
  • The viruses like trojans may affect the banking transaction of the customers. The trojan virus affects the full device and due to this, fraudulent activities occur while performing the banking transactions. The personal information of the customers is accessed by hackers and this increases the theft cases related to money.

It is also derived that mobile banking is the best way to make the banking services more convenient and support the customers to get banking at their doorsteps. It is also enumerated that mobile banking is the most secure way to perform banking activities and transfer money from any corner of the world. The bank website provides every detail to the customers so that they can access the banking through mobile phones. It also supports the customers to become cashless and this makes the digital country. Customers can utilize this service as it is the fastest way to perform financial transactions. The password and the user Id protect the personal data of the customers and make them feel comfortable while performing using mobile banking technology. It is also discussed that mobile banking has both pros and cons as it supports the customers to save their time and to get their banking services at their home. The banks also provide customer service to the customers to solve the problems which they face while performing mobile banking services. It is the most convenient way to perform financial transactions. The customers also get the messages related to the debit and credit of the money immediately so that the customers remain alert regarding their money. The banks also utilize various technologies to support the customers to get a proper connection while using the mobile banking technology as the lack in the network will affect the bank balance of the customers. According to recent research, it is identified that 61% of people in the world prefer mobile banking technology as they find it comfortable for them and they can transfer the money to any corner of the world. The customers also get the benefits of entering the number of the beneficiary and can send the money by clicking one option. It is also defined that mobile banking also increased the rate of fraud cases as the customer lose their money due to a huge number of criminals. So, the banks included cybersecurity to protect the data and stops criminals to make money from the customers without any reason. It is the best way to protect the money. The banks also included the encryption program within the server so that no one can take the personal information of the customers. You can get latest information on mobile banking and refined risks associated with it from instant assignment help ArabEssay.


It is concluded that in the above essay the information related to the risks and benefits of mobile banking technology is provided. The information related to how the customers face problems and how they can mitigate the problem is enumerated. It also includes the information based on the technologies that the banks utilize to protect the personal information of the customers are also discussed. Mobile banking technology also occurs in many fraud cases due to which the customers face huge problems regarding their money. It is identified that a maximum number of people like to perform mobile banking so that they can keep their money protected. The mobile banking technology also utilizes an encryption program to protect the money from getting breached. The banks also update their system to keep them protected every time and make the customers feel safe. In many cases, the fraud messages also come in the devices of the customers and due to this, the customers lose their money. It is also recommended that the customers need to observe whether the banks have encrypted services or not before operating mobile banking technology. It is also explained that the customers need to be alert always while making payments. This provides huge benefits as it supports the customers to take banks to their doorsteps.   

Technology Application In Modern Marketing

Technology Application


Technology strategic plans areas for improvement in some locations and precious too many activities at the same time or fail to explain importance of one improvement over the other. This is acute specimen of ineffective prioritisation which ends after wasting money as well as opportunities. Technology is the skill of rapidly evolving and also changing the social characteristics from that of national security to that of the regular lives. The strategic role played by technology focuses on understanding the way in which it helps in innovative transformation of the world will leave. Technology like wave Technology your smartphone or social media for sharing software systems can significantly impact modern marketing. The technology related aspect health organisations in growth and prosperity for the creation of relationship and strengthening the impact as well as enabling people to learn regarding each other which can greatly impact the way in which organisations communicate with the prospective consumers (Nair and Gupta, 2021). The marketers perceive technology to be an important factor coming to the context of development as well as their growth. Technologies demonstrated as important as well as a strategic tool for instrument of overall efficiency and staying ahead of the competitors. The efficient role of marketing has not been altered because of Technology. On the contrary the dynamism in the relationship between consumer and seller is responsible for the same (Akhmadi, 2018). This develops the corporate attitude towards marketing function and associated marketing approaches. It is not possible to separate these elements or bring about changes in rapid evolution of Technology.


Main use of internet has the facility in the consumers in getting access to the ways can save data from throughout the world. It incorporates the data which are timeless as well as critical and also verifiable. The click of button enables the customers to gain significant and demonstration about organisations as well as the product (Grewalet sl., 2020). According to essay typer the efficiency of comparing products followed by finding lower price as well as reading review and also communicating with other users by means of for paragliding product quality as well as consumer related satisfaction. Evolution of marketing in the past years that Technology can be considered as a minor role player however it has evolved to be the most eminent and a determining factor at present.

Description Of The Role

As the modern marketing is its we need to enter the domain where the option of alternatives for accomplishing the work is almost infinite foster the days when evidence required to purchase used for and omega standardized and argon. Nowadays people also need various scenarios regarding the condition. Different scenario is now experienced. However, on account of digital marketing, the elements like SEO or SEM or PP have been largely adopted by marketers. The witness of evolution in the industry and it is important not the way in which technology will bring about the evolution in the marketing functions. We reached the point where the space for marketing is a constant and driving IT changes (Omarov, Tikhaya and Lyashenko, 2018).

It is important to note that the marketing industry is evolving and it is also interesting to observe the way in which technology has undergone a revolution in terms of the marketing function where is used. Nowadays the customers have reached an area where they witness the marketing space to be continuously dynamic and reshaping based on unique as well as new concept and trend and strategies as well as best practices (Krasyuket al., 2017). According to a report published in 2019 by university assignment help about 24% of almost 6,000 global marketing agents highlighted that social media should be considered as an important segment of marketing for the last five years. In this regard it can also be articulated that the marketing strategy is the need to be more innovative as well as useful however the regulating advancements have helped the marketers to a great extent. There has been a significant role of Technology in marketing in the year 2019.

Using The Voice

Various statistics I like that about one third of the sea point 5 million research over Google as well as the voice search has been taking place. The purpose of such detailed research is that it is expected to increase in the coming years. Machine learning for automation as well as other kind of technical changes has created a voice which is a useful tool in the recent days. When any individual ask the Google assistant any question then the results achieved from the question is unlike the Google search result where a lot of results appear. In USA only the use of voice assistants increased by about 1 30% in 2019 in comparison to 2018 (Sterne, 2017). This is a progressive growth however a potential challenge for the businesses as well. Hence it has become very important for the marketing agents to attempt and list themselves in the search for stock they need to tailor the Search engine optimisation strategies in order to acquire greater outcome for them. The need to predict when the customers will speak rather than type while is a conductor voice research to stop it is also important to make use of natural conversation and language in accompaniments to longer phrases or the complete sentences in the form of keywords. In this technology will be helping the marketers to get closer to the consumers as well (Matikiti, Mpinganjira and Roberts-Lombard, 2018).

Rising Growth Of Chatbot Technology

This is a emerging Technology however being used for a significant amount of time now. This kind of Technology enables a combination and the use of text followed by a voice as well as messaging in order to undergo conversation and directly with the consumers. According to the survey results the global chat bot marketing has reached value of 1.2 billion US dollars and the rate of growth of this technology is abruptly 24%. In accompaniments to that it can also be articulated that about 45% of the consumers also preferred utilising them during communication with the enterprises. Chatbot is also very beneficial in terms of the way in which the customer enquiry is handled and the way in which grievance management is done by using meticulous amount of data from variable sources (VidhyaLakshmi and Karthik, 2021). Based on the questions asked by people and the problems encountered by people in using it can be articulated that the nature of feedback provided by means of chatbot can be considered as a significant tool for analysis and it can also be considered as a basis to develop the future marketing plans. According to various estimate made by assignment help professional about 80% of the world communication between customer and organisations has been done in recent times by using chatbots. Hence it is important for the business organisations to exclusively incorporate current chatbot feature in their business process. About 40% of the overall business organisations are expected to accommodate this technique within their system by the end of 2020-21 financial year.

Mobile Advertising

It is the invincible aspect that for the last 20 years the way in which social media interaction has taken place has created endless opportunities for the marketing agents. There are different organisations which connects with customers by means of the social media platforms for their personalized campaign. Nevertheless it is however difficult to find the marketers as well as customers with the significant credibility. They need to connect with customers on a real sense and emphasize on human connection which should be put at the heart of brand message in. Social media marketing provide the freedom of advertising to as many people as needed on the basis of a specific budget (Ivannikova and Bognet,, 2021). On the basis of 2017 report it in the articulated that mobile advertisement contributes to 62% of the advertisements in the upcoming 4 years. It is a significant indication that with increasing customers involved in the mobile phones as well as using their devices as a tool for advertising it will increase in terms of a powerful marketing strategy.

Video Marketing

Automation video marketing will continue to influence the marketing process. In this regard the consumers are likely to see video only if it is providing authentic as well as appropriate content rather than reading a detailed blog post. Hens giving a time period when blogging is greatly accepted it is important to note that video marketing should never be underestimated. Large number of marketers emphasize on video marketing. However, even then it should be kept in mind that the customers will be preparing the unique and individual kind of videos (Sun, 2021). According to statistics of video which is provided in emails will be increasing the scope of consumers who click on the link about 250-300 percent in comparison to the nexus of the video which is sent. According to marketers cheap assignment help team it is important to note that the subsequent growth of advertising will always emphasize on indulging in conclusion of more content of this category.

Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning

It is a very important fact the artificial intelligence server come in a significant aspect of our lives a full stop however in recent times marketing the main acquire the significant importance on the basis of artificial intelligence. Marketing incorporate elements like decision making as well as planning however artificial intelligence is considered to be the most important support system as it provides the scope for decision making. On the basis of this paper different the articulated that people have accumulated about 90% of global data in the last year however only 1% of the cell data has been used effectively (Al Chalabi, 2021). Therefore the concept and knowledge about the role played by data in terms of marketing appropriate decisions about employees followed by strategy and consumers it is also important to note that the marketing agents utilising such data will have a very specific role to play. In accompaniment to machine learning the computers will be provided with various rules to follow however those will be process as well as programmed to learn and then experience important things required by consumers.

The Face Of Marketing Is Changing

The software tool and Technology is helping the marketers to determine new ways of increasing the customers. Nowadays internet is turning into a living entity where there are millions of interconnected devices as well as user related content along with social interaction which happen over various devices like computer or smartphone or tablet. All these resources give birth to a new opportunity for marketing. In case if the marketers of this generation truly wants to achieve the highest potential of marketing efforts then they should turn to technology at its best (Nezamova and Olentsova, 2020).

She has accomplished a transformation in marketing by developing the campaigns to become more personalized and interactive for people and also developing ecosystems which develop more integrated and targeted element for the marketers. It is not only contributed towards development of the interface between the brand as well as people however it has also accounted for transformation. The new technology in marketing has permeated infrastructure as well as a system is based on which government actions are develop and deliver value with the procurement and also adds to the bottom line. In 2013 about 47% of the marketers in USA emphasized on creativity in order to drive marketing strategy for staff in the last year the number has been 29% (Rusetskaya, 2020). In 2022 it has been 56% of the marketers where creativity and Technology has played a significant role in determination of where as well as how the customer engagement process will take place. The 30% of those have a significant impact on technology over creativity. To know more about technology effect on marketing, ask essay writing help from ArabEssay experts.

Being At Par With Consumers

In order to better grasp why it is happening in the markets the need to look at ways people acquire information from and what are their expected form of entertainment as well as expected preferences of shopping sources.


There are about 4 billion of active internet users online all times which implies that about 51 % of the global population is always connected over the internet. In the upcoming three years China and India will be adding more internet users than what exists in USA today (Fenselet al., 2021).

Mobile Phones

About 5 million people nowadays have devices like mobile phones and about half of the connections in this case are smartphones cool stuff that about 93 billion US dollars will be spent on mobile advertisement this year and about 20 billion will be spent on TV ecommerce advertisements. About 2 billion people over the world are expected to purchase goods and services online by the end of 2021. In the same way the elements of entertainment can also be articulated as about one third of online activities is based on expenditure followed by watching online videos and half of billion people watching Facebook videos on everyday basis. Get to know more from plagiarism free assignment help service of ArabEssay

Expectation Of Marketers From Brands

It is important to consider what the marketers demand from the brands in order to understand why the new technology like the block chain technology or chatbot Technology has been growing in terms of its adaptation and utilisation. This is how Technology will be less a transferring device and more equipment for better communication (Dyahrini, Firmansyah and Purba, 2021).

Personalization at scale is the most important element of discussion at this moment. In a recent research studies has been articulated that 90% of the business as having advanced personalization strategy demonstrated increase in revenue in the year 2018. In fact in comparison to digital marketing experiential marketing has been demonstrated by initiatives pretty emotional bond between consumers and brands having about ten times the return on investment for development of measurable loyalty. Also accountability and transparency are some of the most important elements to be considered in this regard full stock out of 6.4 billion US dollar expenditure made by brands on programmatic investment in 2018 about only 27% have made it up to the working media (Gao, 2020). About 12% of the money has been lost to advertisement fraud and about 55% have been lost to the technical taxes when employed at individual stages of the programmatic purchases.

Partnership Between Marketing And Technology

In order to understand the way which is best to apply new technology to a brand or product the marketers will require the assistance of the technology as well as information and legal departments of the company. In this case the challenge for marketers will not be what to do with the data they collected but the way they will be using the same. We can make the best use of the sophisticated Technology however without marketing intelligence which unifies the data inside the use of Technology will not be sufficient in delivering return on investment expected by the marketers or the organisation (Xiang, 2020). You can also ask for write my essay from Arabessay to produce A one tuition assignments.

Budget For Growing Revenue

The cost of investment for new technology is a common element for marketers however as well as with technology the overall cost is expected to divination as economies of scale as well as competition throughout service and platform will be providing a strong increment. In this regard the marketing technology is also likely to increase as the marketing budget grows. Overall advertisement expenditure in USA is anticipated to grow about 24% in the time period between 2018 and 2022. The suggested growth is expected to increase from 2 21 billion US dollars up 22 75 billion US dollars. In 2022 it has been 56% of the marketers where creativity and Technology has played a significant role in determination of where as well as how the customer engagement process will take place (Winarko, Sihabudin and Dua, 2020). The 30% of those have a significant impact on technology over creativity. Nevertheless in this regard it can be clearly articulated that marketing expenditure is also expected to increase as the growth of marketing budgets take place. Overall advertisement related expenditure in USA is anticipated to grow about 24% as a directed the above. There will be share of budget dedicated towards marketing technology and it is anticipated to remain stable over the same frame of time which should be 30% in 2018 should be 32% in 2022.


The technology category receiving the most investment is based on the kind of organisation and the scope and level of implementation needed. Some techniques required basic integration with the legacy infrastructure however some others demand potential and extensive integration in stock never the less investment is justified by the amount of revenue that technology is anticipated to bring for the organisations. With the digital interaction will be responsible for generating more data set which enable retailers to increase the scope of customers in slow motion for a by price and product for individual customer on a dynamic bases in real-time environment. It is not possible for an individual to expect all organisations Technology it depends on the specific company and their need for growth in the industry. However there is still some growth marketing agency which will be expected to make a significant difference in the overall marketing domain. Understanding the demand of consumers and the way their requirements vary can be assessed appropriately by means of Technology. However the organisations should incur expenditure and also ensure their employees are properly trained and they have adequate knowledge in order to make the best use of Technology. Cloud or artificial intelligence or data analytics are the basis of other techniques emerging and continuing to grow after the massive impact of technical incorporation in marketing domain since 2019.

Reference list

Akhmadi, H., 2018, April. Use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) on Agricultural Marketing in Indonesia a Brief Literature Review. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Food, Agriculture and Natural Resources (FANRes 2018).


Dyahrini, W., Firmansyah, E. and Purba, J.M., 2021. The Effect of Digital Marketing, Digital Money on Performance PT. Indosat (Case Study in Bandung Sales Area). Psychology and Education Journal58(1), pp.6343-6349.

Fensel, A., Akbar, Z., Kärle, E., Blank, C., Pixner, P. and Gruber, A., 2020. Knowledge Graphs for Online Marketing and Sales of Touristic Services. Information11(5), p.253.

Gao, Z., 2020. Construction of Agricultural Products Marketing System in the Computer Age. In Innovative Computing (pp. 319-326). Springer, Singapore.

Grewal, D., Hulland, J., Kopalle, P.K. and Karahanna, E., 2020. The future of technology and marketing: A multidisciplinary perspective.

Ivannikova, M. and Bognet, B.S., 2021. The role of social media marketing in promoting small and medium business.

Krasyuk, I.A., Krymov, S.M., Medvedeva, Y., Chernisheva, A.M. and Lashko, S.I., 2017. Marketing management in retail chains. International Journal of Applied Business and Economic Research15(12), pp.83-91.

Matikiti, R., Mpinganjira, M. and Roberts-Lombard, M., 2018. Application of the technology acceptance model and the technology–organisation–environment model to examine social media marketing use in the South African tourism industry. South African Journal of Information Management20(1), pp.1-12.

Nair, K. and Gupta, R., 2021. Application of AI technology in modern digital marketing environment. World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development.

Nezamova, O.A. and Olentsova, J.A., 2020. Innovative marketing technologies in the markets of the Krasnoyarsk region. Азимут научных исследований: экономика и управление9(2), pp.247-250.

Omarov, M., Tikhaya, T. and Lyashenko, V., 2018. Internet marketing technologies in civil engineering.

Rusetskaya, D., 2020. Changes in modern marketing.

Sterne, J., 2017. Artificial intelligence for marketing: practical applications. John Wiley & Sons.

Sun, Y., Research on Precision Marketing of Big Data in Small-and Medium-Sized E-commerce Enterprises. Modern Industrial IoT, Big Data and Supply Chain, p.121.


Winarko, H.B., Sihabudin, A. and Dua, M., 2020. The Role of Opinion Leadership in Social Media Marketing Technology Adoption Process. Winarko, HB, Sihabudin, A., & Dua, M.(2020). The Role of Opinion Leadership in Social Media Marketing Technology Adoption Process. International Journal of Advanced Science and Technology29(5), pp.11510-11522.

Xiang, F., 2020, March. Research on Computer Network Marketing in E-commerce. In 2020 International Conference on Computer Engineering and Application (ICCEA) (pp. 303-305). IEEE.

Effectiveness Of Social Media As A Tool Of Communication

Role Of Social Media In Communication

People nowadays use most common forms of post modern communication. Gone are the days of using landline phone or cordless local area network for communication. Now when we talk about online chat for exchanging emails we are actually e discussing about full-fledged form of communication. Modernization of Technology is creating new opportunities of dynamic revolution. Global connectivity has been recently revolutionized in the post modern period by introduction of social media. The fundamental point of advent and expansion of social media started with introduction of Facebook. However the domain of social media is expanded by Twitter, Instagram, and Snapchat and recently by Skype or Myspace (Williams, Saunderson and Dhoest, 2021). It is a free and highly interactive source of communication. Communication and interaction happens within few seconds over social media. The variety of expression and freedom of forms of expression over social media makes it different from the traditional communication media in the previous era. Social media efforts to establishment of connection between people not only through voice exchange but also through creation or sharing of versatile content which can be shared with multiple people at the same time over the same network. Freedom of expansion has been spread across domain and territory with the introduction of free exchange of information and content through social media. Social media is also contributing towards development of virtual communities and development of spontaneous channels over the same network space. Therefore it requires no additional installation or connectivity issues encountered by traditional form of communication like mobile phone network for landline network. Social media has been able to change our lives, as its activities are totally online (Nurhadi, Zahro and Chisbiyah, 2019). It provides people with advantage of online sharing of ideas or information for boys with anybody in any part of the world. Online information sharing has also helped people to increase the scope of communication. It has provided as the scope of not only exchanging words but also detailed content like image or video. Social media has been recently used not only for exchanging opinion and ideas or data (Ramaj and Ukaj, 2018). As per online assignment writer view it also helping in an exchange of professional information like new job openings for creating professional networks. Such ideas gave birth to social media platforms like LinkedIn for monster jobs.

Dynamism In Communication

Sharing of online information increases human communication skill. This form of media has been used for exchange of information among a specific interest group like teacher and students of educational institutions and so on. It is also used for exchange of information between employees and their bosses in offices. The online tools and social media Technology has not only successful in mediated communication in unending number of way but also increased the spontaneous scope of communicating with the large number of people at the same time (Okparaet all., 2021). The advent of social media in a bus company a teacher to send a notice or declaration to all recipients saved as contacts in his or her mobile phone at the same time at the click of one switch. This is how social media added dynamism in forms of communication. In accordance with online assignment help professional impact of social media based communication exchange has accounted for reduction and stoppage of the use of some traditional forms of communication like maintaining landline phones in most households or sending letters. Nowadays letters are only exchanged for official purposes. People are no longer found to deliver personal letters to their recipients. The emerging impact of social media has accounted for bringing about change in communication as well as lifestyle. Since people can heavily and actively communicate with any recipient throughout the world, they can remain connected with others throughout the time (Paladines-Galarza,Velásquez-Benavides and Enríquez-Cruz, 2019). This brought about changes in lifestyle as well. People have started sharing and sending information and messages over the online social media platforms which reduced their tendency of physical meeting. In fact corporate offices have the tendency of organising virtual meetings in order to avoid the resource and organisation cost of physical meetings however accomplishing the objective of meeting at no cost and added convenience. Therefore change in pattern of communication over social media also brought changes in our life style at interpersonal level as well as community level. These fundamental changes define our personality strictly.

Broad Benefits Of Social Media

In this section the broad benefits of social media in the purview of advancing mode of communication will be discussed. Social media has limited the scope of sharing ideas. The social networking websites allows us to share our thought, accomplishment, event, interests, failures, happenings and even our smallest achievements with an individual networks using parallel web source over same platform. The example of WhatsApp status update of Facebook posts can be cited in this regard. Someone who just got his new job offer can let anyone in their personal contact or social media contact list know about the same by simply posting a status update. People having interest in the same area or concern regarding same activities can also establish a network of communication by pondering over the respective status update (Hallerberg,Jayaranjan and Farzana, 2018). The recent in production of short videos enables people to share their feelings and emotions of the moment. Communication is nowadays not only restricted at interpersonal level however broadened to encompass any community or individual with similar interests or similar tendency or similar habits. The analytics and network magnification features of social media websites help the social media account users to successful established communication with like minded people whom we do not know at personal level at all. To know more take essay writing help from ArabEssay experts.

Tools Of Communication

Social media is nowadays used as a specific tool of communication by various active interest groups. An important example in the purview of interest sharing is the active use of social media networks for the purpose of teaching and learning under the current global pandemic situation when there is lock down in most of the countries. Teachers and students are using social media as a communication tool. Hence it is not only enabling establishment of communication but making it possible to accomplish the physical activities which people does in groups. Teachers create multiple chat rooms or discussion forums for respective groups to extend their classroom discussion in posting assignments or test papers or online quiz (Chibuwe, 2020). The active live video features of social media Asus teachers and students in helping them to clarify their doubts regarding lesson and homework outside traditional classroom setting. The students are also able to chat and clear the doubts by speaking with their classroom groups where all other students of the same classroom can discuss concepts over the same line of communication. The same feature is also spectacular used in office meeting. Social media has helped in advancing connectivity to such a level that it supports meeting and discussion between vendor and clients for employee and bosses (Basri, 2020). Various companies are facility and features like online presentation of ideas by making videos and sharing their mobile or laptop screen. This is how cyberspace has developed the potential of representing office spaces as well.

Mitigating Common Communication Gaps

Social media helps in bringing random people together thereby making the world a smaller space. Online people always have the scope of establishing connectivity with other people with similar interests or intentions. This gives birth to virtual community based on sharing common interests (Al Sharafat, 2021). Availability of social media connectivity throughout the day is a common expectation of people nowadays. Therefore, active user interaction and continuous content sharing increases relationship among people. Nowadays a large number of people are able to find their partners from social media. It is noteworthy that social media has absolutely altered the definition of modern communication.

Source Of Crucial Information

Social media is not only a web page communication. It is a repository for random content sharing post of it ranges from sharing of news to sharing of travel videos and pictures. It spans across the scope of playing online games together to that of sending personalized birthday cards to your loved ones. Social media platforms like Facebook are also popular as content sharing platform. Gradually become user friendly with every evolved version of respective applications. Currently Facebook is considered as an authentic and trusted source of news and various information like job openings or event it and gatherings. The users have the liberty of using keywords to search for their expected content. The Boolean algorithm helps people to connect their MI set with their content consumption type of social media (del Rocío Bonillaet al., 2020). This is how people generally get access to the kind of information or news which they prefer to watch. An individual who prefers jokes and funny videos and constantly searches this kind of content in social media will get naturally the best content suited to this content category over his own news feed after about a month. University assignment help experts defined social media algorithms are developed with every passing day with better programming and coding. This is how it is enabling advanced communication. The most spectacular advantage of using social media as a source of active information that is completely free of cost and the range of information over the social media platforms is endless.

Popular Websites And Platforms Of Social Media

Sharing of blogs is the most corporate friendly and topic oriented form of social media communication. It is a space for sharing casual dialogues on random topics or engaging in actively corporate discussions on specific topic within a specific circle of people who gets access to reading the blogs. There are specific websites for sharing of blogs specifically like BlogSpot. However Facebook is the most popular form of social media up to the current date. It is the largest formed global network having over 1.5 billion active users based on monthly count of accounts. It enables users to maximize the personalizing of their individual profiles and communicate most reasonable personal information with the outer world (Khan, Khan and Nawaz, 2019). The process of communicating over Facebook is as simple as any other social media handle. It allows people to add other users as their friends and immediately establish individual line of communication for sharing messages or any other form of content with respective friend. The common status updates of people can be accessed by friends or public users over the respective social media platform however on the basis of privacy preference of the user only. The advanced scope of communication has made social media platforms like Facebook,a preferred modem of product and service promotion by various brands. Large number of modern brands is using Facebook for content marketing. These brands create their respective web pages and operate as active Facebook users under the token name of the brand pages. Twitter has a service scope and user base smaller in context to Facebook however with a specific objectivity (Tasenţe, 2019). It is a social networking or more specifically a micro blogging platform enabling individuals or groups to establish communication by exchange of short status messages. Now it is Twitter is mostly used for scoping and getting in touch which influences are celebrities or focus groups.

Twitter is a remarkable manifestation of impromptu connectivity. Academic writing help expert presented their view and defined it not only facilitates communication but allows people to convey their thoughts or idealise their opinion over anything and everything very quickly. In the same way, Instagram is another social media platform which another unique objectivity (Di Lauro,Tursunbayeva and Antonelli, 2019). It is a free platform for sharing photos and videos. It provides users with large number of digital filters and photo frames or effects which adds the glamour to their photos. Shading of photos or any multimedia content is one of the unique features of dynamic communication which has been made possible by the advent of social media platforms. This spectacular feature is uniquely celebrated by Instagram. People share photos of their explosive memories or post their selfies to let others know about their current mood for the event they are witnessing or participating or places where they have recently travelled. As people go out for dining toenjoy a remarkable palate, they share the photo of the same over Instagram (DePaula,Dincelli and Harrison, 2018). Their friends and family members or random users can comment under their photos to let them know about their opinion regarding the specific food or the restaurant or the destination and so on. Snapchat is another mobile based application allowing people to send and share photo and videos.

Instagram and Snapchat have almost similar kind of users. However the base of users over Instagram is comparatively larger in comparison to Snapchat. Snapchat is popular for clicking photo with unique individual filters. This platform uses artificial intelligence and augmented reality technology to give unique feeling two people who click photos using the filters of Snapchat. It not only enables people to communicate through photos but also serves as a potential form of entertainment. LinkedIn is a fairly corporate platform of social media which is related to professional networking for job hunting and general discussion regarding corporate affairs and activities. Here professionals with similar interests and ideas mostly meet with each other. This year respective information and participate in compatible conversation regarding professional domain or job related objectives.

Alternative Communication Needs

Everything is only a click away for social media users. On the current we communicate with people for everything ranging from listening to news for purchasing our daily necessities. Social media has not only advanced the scope of communication but provided as an option to communicate with large number of recipients. The the simple form of of user interface provides enthusiasm to access various features of social media platforms. The spontaneous connectivity and scope of communication with people for serving random needs has enabled people to contact other social media users’ sources for shopping, studying, making booking and so on. Is already discussed how education incorporate multiple social media forms and privileged teachers and students with the scope of creating personalized chat rooms to increase the scope of interactivity among the learners (Madyatmadjaet al., 2020). Colleges and universities use social media platforms to conduct inter college way winners and promotes knowledge through event. Various universities offer online only courses and uses social media as active platform for sharing content and materials for the course. Digital marketing has also sufficed the need of effective communication. People nowadays not required hopping from one shop to another in communicating and networking with various brands and preferred shops. They get all the shops and all favourite products under the roof of the same web application on their smartphones. In fact social media is helping organisations to go beyond the limitation  of a specific demographic and geographic boundary and sell their product and services to the global consumer base. Get to know more from plagiarism free assignment help professional associated with ArabEssay.

Making Online Payments

The time when online payments only referred to making payments over the online banking gateway of respective banking institutions is not gone far. However social media has created the scope of developing active personalized payment gateways for any purpose. Online payment scheme is nowadays amalgamated with almost all social media platforms. Hence social media has compensated for the need of communication to make payments as well. Even the basic social networking platforms like WhatsApp have incorporated the option of online payment with the feature of WhatsApp payments with respective application (Tasenţe, 2019). It enables the WhatsApp users to transfer money to any other people with least effort. However the only impediment of the new payment systems is maintaining security standards and updating security protocol to make payments is secured from the threat of digital criminals. Therefore, social media offers the most convenient option of online payments.

Online Healthcare

Social media has altered the way of provision of healthcare services. In contrast to you physically visiting a doctor for treatment, the patients can communicate virtually with doctors and get online suggestion in the form of digital prescription from the doctor based on the health symptoms. Skype is a recent social media platform which provides patients with scope of consulting with doctors over video call for better understanding the treatment needs. It creates scope of advantages for patients who try to avoid paying visit to the clinic (Basri, 2020). However it also involves the scope of cyber criminals where and qualified professionals can register themselves as doctors and provide suggestion through social media platform to patients. However some social media platforms also provide people with the credibility to check the profile of the doctor online. However if it is used sincerely then it will become a beneficial resource for people throughout the world.

Increase Of Civic Awareness

Social media changes the pattern of governance by incorporating more transparency in the process. Various global leaders post over social media to make their opinions heard and priorities noted. The civic influencers try to provide people with a better understanding about government and electrical approach. Social media has also broken the shackles of filtering information from reaching peoples. Social media has provided the news media industry or scope of transparent journalism in contrast to traditional media which is nowadays being moderated and filtered by various influences from government or non government sources (Chibuwe, 2020). However, it can be considered as a change for the better. Nevertheless social media platforms being a free source of media, it is being maliciously used buy large number of entities it to spread effect information therefore creating a great prospect for miscommunication.


The influence of social media has created diversification in communication where quick and critical conversation is easily scoped. On account of world’s great impact the employers seek professionals who are properly  versed in social media platforms to take on important roles within organisations. In fact the business function over social media is undergoing rapid growth and presents various employment opportunities as well. Social media is providing a foundation for the newfound prospect of communication which liberates us from traditional communication processes and provides us an array of scope for better connectivity.

Reference List

Al Sharafat, A., 2021. How Twitter Has Spiked the Black Lives Matter Movement.

Basri, W., 2020. Determinant of Tendency towards social media tools usage: Moderating role of Trust in Saudi Communication Sector. 2020 WEI.

Chibuwe, A., 2020. Social Media and Elections in Zimbabwe: Twitter War between Pro-ZANU-PF and Pro-MDC-A Netizens. Communicatio, pp.1-24.

del Rocío Bonilla, M., Perea, E., del Olmo, J.L. and Corrons, A., 2020. Insights into user engagement on social media. Case study of a higher education institution. Journal of Marketing for Higher Education30(1), pp.145-160.

DePaula, N., Dincelli, E. and Harrison, T.M., 2018. Toward a typology of government social media communication: Democratic goals, symbolic acts and self-presentation. Government Information Quarterly35(1), pp.98-108.

Di Lauro, S., Tursunbayeva, A. and Antonelli, G., 2019. How nonprofit organizations use social media for fundraising: A systematic literature review. International Journal of Business and Management14(1), pp.7-11.

Hallerberg, S.A., Jayaranjan, M.L.D. and Farzana, S., 2018, March. Face-to-face is the most effective media for communication over social media. In 15th International Symposium on Management (INSYMA 2018). Atlantis Press.

Khan, M.Z., Khan, Q.U. and Nawaz, A., 2019. Role of Social Media in Civic-State Engagement and Political Apathy in New Public Sphere: A Survey of Faculty/Research-Scholars from Gomal&Qurtuba Universities DIK KP Pakistan. Acta Universitatis Danubius. Communicatio13(1).

Madyatmadja, E.D., Sano, A.V.D., Sianipar, C.P., Nindito, H. and Bhaskoro, R.A., 2020, August. Factors Influencing the Uses of Social Media within the Government: A Systematic Literature Review. In 2020 International Conference on Information Management and Technology (ICIMTech) (pp. 835-840). IEEE.

Nurhadi, D., Zahro, S. and Chisbiyah, L.A., 2019. A management framework for implementing social media in higher education. Acta Universitatis Danubius. Communicatio13(1).

Okpara, C.V., Anselm, U.A., Alphonsus, U., Chidi, U.J. and Gever, V.C., 2021. Modelling the Effectiveness of a Social Media-based Counseling Intervention on Interest, Entrepreneurial Skills, and Behavioural Intention Towards Painting Among Youth Without Paid Jobs in Nigeria. Vision, p.09722629211002314.

Paladines-Galarza, F., Velásquez-Benavides, A. and Enríquez-Cruz, M.J., 2019, June. Analysis of virtual comunication platforms. Case study: communication agencies in Chile. In 2019 14th Iberian Conference on Information Systems and Technologies (CISTI) (pp. 1-6). IEEE.

Ramaj, B. and Ukaj, F., 2018. Review of literature for internet marketing and social media in tourism. Acta Universitatis Danubius. Communicatio12(2).

Tasenţe, T., 2019. Social Media Communication in the European Administration. Case study: European Commission. Acta Universitatis Danubius. Communicatio13(2), pp.118-129.

Williams, M.L., Saunderson, I.P. and Dhoest, A., 2021. Students’ Perceptions of the Adoption and Use of Social Media in Academic Libraries: A UTAUT Study. Communicatio47(1), pp.76-94.

Advantages And Disadvantages Of Group Decision Making

Group Decision Making

An effective group carries out various tasks or function to perform its work and ensure member satisfy in all the stance and show team spirit. Different task function is very crucial in the life cycle of a group. In any organization, managers use groups decisions for several reasons out of which one is a synergy that occurs when group simulate the new solution and on other is bringing knowledge and experience to the problem-solving activities

At times group decision can be predicted when comparing the initial view of group members. The simple relationship between the group simulation and the final decision result can be predicted from the social decision scheme. It is well known social decision scheme estimates group decision as much as 80% of all the time. 

One social scheme majority based on the win-win rule suggested whatever position taken by the team lead will be supported by the members. Another scheme is the truth win scheme that suggests correct decision will appear as several members start realizing their appropriateness. Amid the two-third win, the rule shows a two-third member of the group favoured the decision being made by the team lead. 

At lasts, the final shift riles states members supported the decision also represented first shift in the opinion shown by the member. In this direction, there are different ways group decision will be made, however, the group decision-making process comes with lower satisfaction at many times and currently studies have been made to know what rule must be used in a particular situation(Herrera-Viedma, 2017). For instance, researches revealed majority win rule is used most often in the judgement tasks whereas the truth wins rule when the tasks in intellectual ones. Therefore it can be said there are different aspects of the group decision-making process and related advantages and disadvantages covered under the article.

Advantages And Disadvantages Of Group Decision Making

Group decision making also involved several advantages and disadvantages as predicted by the assignment maker

The Advantages Include

More knowledge and experiences involved in group decision through a pooling of group resources(Belošević,, 2018)

Increased acceptance towards decision making 

Great understanding of the decisions made

Increased commitment towards the business operative function

Some Major Disadvantages Include-

Pressure within the group to confirm the decision

Dominating the decision forcefully by the leader

The amount of time required would be higher as the group decision-making process is relatively slower

Several empirical studies concluded, effective decision making process largely depends on the substantial task or type of the tasks allocated. For instance, judgement tasks would require prediction and estimation of all superiority and breadth of experiences that multiple members can bring about. There is some study that has shown group who work till long period tends to be most competent 70% of all times. This study says the experience is a viable element that has to consider when comparing the effectiveness of individual and group decision making. To know more, get plagiarism-free essay help from ArabEssay experts anytime.

Limitation Of Group Decision Making

Two potential liabilities have been discovered under the group decision making process one is groupthink and other group polarization-

Group Think-  One such liability of the cohesive group is the development of groupthink. Most of the cohesive group tends to identify the solidarity as such members identify strongly within the group(Gomes, 2018). The majority, high ranking teams who decide without outside help are prone to groupthink. A group member pertaining suffering from groupthink show the following symptoms-

The illusion of invulnerability where group tends to feel they are above the criticism

The illusion of morality when group feel they are always moral during executive actions

The illusion of unanimity when silence constructed as acceptance

Stereotypic as per the evil perspective

Peer pressure experiences among group members

Self-censorship when group members don’t feel like expressing their doubts


Group Polarization- 

This shows discussion among the group made risker decision and acceptance of greater risk. Individual who is initially favour the issues showing an opposite reaction. This shift of position in the view called group polarization.

Group polarization exerts greater influence over group decision making, one such explanation is evident at the time of analyzing social schemes. Prior to the group decision, a member thinks he or she holds a better view than others(Proietti, 2017). 

A group polarization leads to the adoption of extreme views, which in some cases can be disastrous. To know more about group polarization and its impact on organizational development, get online assignment help from ArabEssay anytime.

Techniques To Approach The Right Group Decision-Making Process

Brainstorming- This is a weapon for a manager for generating alternatives. The ideas behind using brainstorming are giving space to many ideas spending much time in the evaluation until all the ideas suggested being gathered.

Nominal Group Techniques- This is a highly structured approach reflecting generating alternatives and choosing one known as nominal group technique.

This involves the following techniques-

Individual silently list their ideas

Ideas will be written on the chart when it is being gathered

Discussion is permitted just to clarify the ideas

A written vote is included 

Devils advocacy – Here a group is given the role of critic. It would help the organization to avoid costly decisions also identifying potential pitfalls in advances

Dialectical inquiry- It is an essential debate between the two sets of recommendation. When using this technique, make sure a win-lose attitude guarded with loss of concentration far-reaching to get the most effective solution. You can also adhere significant information in regards to group decision making from ArabEssay essay helpers


For centuries group decision making came into role play bringing effective decision and enhances the company’s productivities that bring with group dynamics. Here in this article, we have enlisted the advantages and disadvantage of the group decision-making process that includes Increased acceptance towards decision making and a Great understanding of the decisions made also sometimes dominating the decision forcefully by leader incidence evidently decreasing group decision effectiveness. Using brainstorming, nominal group techniques company can reduce the impact of group think and group polarization.


Belošević, I., Kosijer, M., Ivić, M., & Pavlović, N. (2018). Group decision making process for early stage evaluations of infrastructure projects using extended VIKOR method under fuzzy environment. European Transport Research Review, 10(2), 1-14.

Gomes, P. F., Reia, S. M., Rodrigues, F. A., &Fontanari, J. F. (2019). Mobility helps problem-solving systems to avoid groupthink. Physical Review E, 99(3), 032301.

Herrera-Viedma, E., Cabrerizo, F. J., Chiclana, F., Wu, J., Cobo, M. J., & Konstantin, S. (2017). Consensus in group decision making and social networks.

Proietti, C. (2017, September). The dynamics of group polarization. In International Workshop on Logic, Rationality and Interaction (pp. 195-208). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Effectiveness Of Humour In Advertisements

Humour In Advertisements


Humour grabs the majority of our attention. This is why humour is used in advertising. Humour provokes laughter. Laughter is a critical aspect of human psychology. Laughter creates the channel for processing various kinds of information ranging from funny stimuli to situations where laughter is the only possible reaction in spite of tough circumstances. People are constantly becoming busier over their smartphones (Núñez-Barriopedro et al., 2019). Distraction with some or the other aspect is a common thing. Under the scenario on the television advertisements are using more humour with added frequency in order to catch the attention of the customers. The humour is intended to grab the initial attention of the customer and it is expected that after the customer watches the inter advertisement, he or she will enjoy the imbibe humour and favour the brand name in future purchase. The effectiveness of humour in modern advertisements and its accountability towards making the product successful in the market, will be discussed as a part of this research.

Largest number of organisations take resort in bold and humorous television advertisement campaign. The objective behind this kind of advertisement is to project the same in front of a large audience base like ok the audience of a super bowl or that of a season finale or any popular show. in the end long and hilarious advertisement campaign becomes a significant element of popular pop culture and becomes reminiscent within our daily vocabulary. In this regard an example can be provided (Koneska et a., 2017). We can speak of Geico caveman who is the mayhem character from Allstate. We can also speak about the old spice muscle man. Humour into advertising campaigns can create lasting impressions on the consumer awareness process.

Reason Behind Successful Humour

The way of adding humour into any advertisement campaign helps the brands to create emotional connectivity with the consumers. Humour is an element which evokes emotions and elicits positive psychology with provocation. This always creates a positive impression. It also enables the consumers to connect themselves with the television commercial and in the later stage find themselves associated with the product. The reaction of customers towards the human element of advertisement makes it effective. In the first online essay writer defined,the capability of humour in attracting the customer is encashed by brands. In the next stage humour associates positive emotions elicited from the commercials developed by a brand. In the end it also helps in creating a lasting impression.

In 1993, the journal of marketing developed research study to understand the impact of humour in advertising. The research study delineates that humour is likely to increase recall, evaluate and purchase intention when various humorous messages coincide with the objectives of the advertisement. After integration with the objectives humour seems to be appropriate with the contextual product category (Ivanov et al., 2019). In such situations, humorous advertisements seem to be more likely and safer in terms of establishing attention and connectivity with the people and therefore increase the memorability and increase sales. Psychological resistance is eradicated by using humour and persuasiveness in favor of the product is also created.

Humour of advertisement helps in connecting customers to any product which seems to be going dry in the market or a simple niche product on the paper. Evidence can be provided in this regard. An organisation selling natural and organic beauty products might extract only a specific section of the wide target population. Nevertheless, the same brand can increase the brand awareness in order to assimilate greater sections of the community by developing a creative as well as viral product campaign which is funny also (Primanto and Dharmmesta, 2019). In case if the products are not popularised in the initial step, the popularity of the advertisement will enable people to share the advertisement in social media and therefore the product will also become popular. This is how the market base of the organic and natural beauty product will grow.

Majority of researchers are in favour of using humour in advertising. On the contrary they always suggest that humour should be used in advertisements with utmost care and caution. Some examples of improper use of humour can be cited to stand the cause. In UK television the video of a man vomiting a wet dog and depending on breath mint for avoiding dog breath was completely banned. The committee of independent television commission received about 900 complaints against the advertisement after which it was put down in the UK and Ireland. Instant plagiarism free assignment help driven by ArabEssay is also seek by students for sequencing advertisement  brief.

Specimen Of Humour In Advertising

Some companies have used humour in the advertisement with absolute success. The human element makes their products popular in the global face.

Geico is a brand which initiated their journey in 2004 as an insurance organisation. A series of individual advertisements was created as a part of the campaign. The tagline used for the advertisements was that using Geico was so easy and that even a caveman could do it. The commercials portrayed people dressed up in the form of Neanderthal looking cavemen. They appear immediately when the tagline flashed in the advertisement (Dore, 2018). However, the hilarious part of the advertisement was that the caveman appeared upset and felt offended to be used as a prop for the organisation.

The television commercial became extremely popular. The popularity reached such a level that a separate television series of shows entitled Caveman was released. The television series did not air for a long time. On the contrary the fact that a simple advertisement had the potential to develop itself as a prime-time television show on a popular network proves how successful it was.

Consumers could easily connect with the fun and humorous intention of the advertisement and the innovative tagline. The comedy done by the actors dressed up as cavemen in the commercial, also made the advertisement hilarious. The contrast of their activities as cavemen in the modern times, generated strong affinity among people towards the advertisement. In a term paper help, it was once defined The cavemen were called upon in modern setting like fine dining restaurant or television studio.

Allstate is the developer of the famous propaganda of the mayhem advertising campaign. Although the television campaigns of other brands like State Farm or Geico were expensive, Allstate created a commercial which was comparatively cheaper (Caulfield et al., 2020). In June 2010 the campaign was on air. In less than one year, the company became owner of the winning industry award for developing a not so intelligent however smart marketing campaign.

In this series of television commercials, the actor Dean Winters, played the role of Mayhem, who is a character with the capability of becoming something that could cause damage to the personal property of the individuals. In one of the exclusive commercials, Mayhem is seen to be becoming the blind spot of a car. In another commercial we find him becoming a house made slipping and falling down from stairs. in another advertisement he is seen to be becoming a wild deer in the forest. The hint of what is to be henceforth perceived in the advertisement is evident in the winter setting. In this case the tagline is that with a car trade insurance the consumers would be liable to cover the huge damage caused (Eisend, 2018). However, if they choose to accept services from Allstate, then they will always be protected from elements like Mayhem.

Old Spice

This advertisement featured a group of previous NFL players. The series of commercials was developed by old spice where the company featured muscular men who were wearing only lower garments or some bath towels, promoting the old spice products including body wash or deodorant or body spray. In advertisements portraying Isaiah Mustafa, the advertisement begins by addressing the ladies and using quick and staccato sentences about how men should smell like him. Old Spice later signed Terry Crews, when the commercials became more outlandish. He usually screened over the screen such that something nonsensical has happened like his brain is coming out from his head or he is bowling with his head (Riecken and Hensel, 2020). He also portrayed the muscular upper part of his body and posed before the camera flexing his pectoral muscles.The commercial campaign of Old Spice generally used a humorous and catchy whistle blowing at the end of the commercia. For other such significant humorous advertisement purposed, choose instant assignment help anytime.

Some significant and memorable humorous advertisement campaigns in recent time have accounted for great success. In this regard it can be highlighted that in recent times irrespective of the size and marketing budget of the company, organisations have incorporated humour whether by means of broadcast or print or simple online release. The consumers from their end have exhibited that they enjoy this kind of humorous advertisement. Consumers have not experienced the humorous advertisements negatively and they have been able to easily connect emotionally with this kind of advertisement. This emotional connectivity increased their futuristic engagement with the brand and accounted for consequent purchase of the same products in future time. use of humour in advertisements have been manifested on a larger scale by using social media platforms for release of this kind of advertisement video. An example can be provided in this regard. In case of an organisation like Cisco selling 1 million dollars’ worth of computer routers, it will be difficult to develop a commercial in unison such that it will appeal only to the section of hard-core technical programmers. This is the reason why the organisation thought creatively and beyond the margin of their product to develop something which became a massive hit and created a significant appeal to the customers section (Wang et al., 2019). Strangely, the use of humour in the advertisement provided scope for development of zero intention of purchasing the product among people other than the target customer’s section. On the contrary this population could influence the specific target segment to purchase the product by sharing the advertisement videos as much possible. Therefore, humorous advertisements are undoubtedly a significant part of advertising activity. Now the important part is to understand how organisations will learn to develop humorous advertisements to enable the pun intended to act in favour of positively impacting the emotion of customers.

The 1996 journal of marketing study examined and accredited the multinational positive impacts of humour on advertising activities. As discussed above, the major outcome of use of humour in advertising is increasing the scope of recalling, evaluating and establishing the purchase intention. This happens because of the coinciding of humorous messages with the advertisement objectives which becomes properly integrated with the objectives and therefore it is perceived as appropriate for the specific product category. As per university assignment help,  This kind of circumstances the humorous advertising is likely to add sufficient attention for increasing memorability and overcoming the predominant sales resistance along with increment in message persuasiveness.

The specimen of poorly implemented humour element in advertisements can be studied in order to demonstrate how the same can be successfully implemented in advertisements. There are a large number of current examples where the humour element has not been implemented to the success of advertisements. There are two popular mistakes because age advertisements using humour elements fail significantly. Mayer et al., (2019), identify that the initial and probably the biggest mistake in this regard is to include too many messages burdening a product with the same. Audiences feel disconnected with the product as soon as the organisation starts doing this kind of thing. For example, it is necessary to avoid the urge of bringing a comedy-based advertisement which has too much product information. Another mistake in this regard is that organisations are not willing to take risk of creativity becoming a little bit edgy. Safe advertisements always attract average outcomes. On the contrary the outcomes are in favour of the advertisements which take a critical chance of creativity in their advertisements. A list of currently failed campaigns can be highlighted. The industry hosts massive discussions so long about the super bowl advertisement of 2009. Advertisement was developed by Sobe beverages, and it is a very prominent example of when humour works against the intention of the advertisement. In The campaign called lizard lake, the organisation recruited Sri NFL players along with computer-generated imagery of lizards and monsters. The creatures were dancing in mockery of the old and famous Swan Lake. There’ve been plenty of reasons why the humour intended in the advertisement did not succeed. Excessive use of computer-generated imagery which seemed to be more then abandoned to the people along with computer enhancement helped the advertisements to lose its originality (Barry and Graça, 2018) The advertisement seemed to be childish and insensible. The football players turned ballet dancers, lizards turned into football players and the improved promotion of the upcoming movie monsters Vs aliens along with excessive product promotion created a mesh, mostly despised by people.

Formulation For Adding Humour In Advertisements

It is a great idea to attempt the inclusion of comedy or humorous elements in advertisements. On the contrary, organisations, on many occasions, have a very difficult time in pulling up any advertisement with the trick of laughter. Almost all marketers think that they are creating a hilarious content when they use the humorous element. In contrast, only a few advertisements are developed by talented marketers who have enough credibility of using humour elements in writing and producing content which can create a very positive appeal to the mass audience. In case of the small and middle-sized organisations it is not likely that they will have advertising agencies like Madison avenue with a high budget and top-notch comedic talent to tap on to. However, it does not imply that there are no other talented writers, exam help professional and producers to help the small companies.

Assuming the fact that there is a scarcity of in-house talent, for running humorous campaigns, it is suggestible that local film schools can be visited and professionals can be enquired. Finding some of the successful senior members of the school with great comedy sense and vision can help in this regard. approaching these kinds of people is easier. They will charge a nominal payment and this is how small brands will find it easier to get hold of this kind of actor. Small brands can also visit the local improv comedy theatres. It is important to scout their performance and identify individuals who have the biggest appeal to the crowd.

one of the pertinent aspects for smaller organisations is that with the help of humour they can create content which will compete with the advertisements developed by the goliaths of the industry. Even a nimble organisation with the Courage to take on risk over a small budget can bring about the difference through advertisement (Yeo et al., 2021). Consumers do not judge the advertisements on the basis of the brand name or their capability. Consumers simply hunt for the funny animated in the advertisement and if the chemistry of the human element is properly amalgamated in the advertisement, find it interesting and attractive.

Humour in advertisements is very sensitive. Therefore, their services depend on the gestures and practical acting of funny and talented people. A commercial that can kill one individual with laughter can be the reason for bad taste for another individual. In this case it is not necessary to target the global audience and only keep the focus to the target segment. Considering the target segment is important to run campaign and focus group data collection for receiving feedback about the perception of consumers regarding the advertisement. researchers highlight that producers and directors develop advertisements on the basis of their own comedy sense. This is the reason why, perhaps the most hilarious element of an advertisement will go unnoticed. On the contrary , essay rewriter  defined the part or the specific scene from the advertisement which was underrated since the launch becomes the biggest hit among the audience. This is the reason why it is important to set some measurable as well as realistic expectations from the launch of all advertising campaigns. The same is applicable in the case of advertisements with humour even if they launched only through the digital platform of the company like the YouTube channel of the organisation. The objective in order to develop humorous advertisements is to create a difference by means of creativity and innovation and setting of goals which will satisfy all kinds of consumers. variety in perception is one of the primary elements of success for humorous campaigns. This is because, once a campaign starts creating a bad taste among the audience it is not possible to save the campaign without a significant change of concept within each (Phua and Kim, 2018). Many researchers have argued that it is necessary to let humorous campaigns run their own course. there will always be some of the other section of people who hate the advertisement in addition to the popular section of people who love it for its content. There will also be another section of people who will not understand the pun intended in the advertisement. This is the reason why natural growth of the advertisement overtime should be focused on.

Integrating Human With Social Media Advertisements

The current time is most viable for all kinds of organisations to use social media for launching new campaigns of humorous advertisements. The reason behind the same is that social media and especially the platform of YouTube is largely perceived as a forum for entertainment only. people generally do not watch YouTube videos for gathering product information however to enjoy the funny elements in the commercials promoting the products. When people are able to relate and they develop their likelihood around an advertisement from YouTube they also develop a profound likelihood of sharing the same video and abiding by the message delivered through the video. In fact, people start sharing the video over online platforms like WhatsApp or Gmail or Facebook. It is viable that small organisations can take chances with funny videos and simply force them on YouTube to perceive the reaction of customers (Barry and Graça, 2018). Most of the researchers note that the majority of this kind of advertisements have failed, however which is the right combination of fun and witty laughter, the video has a greater chance of success as well. In case if success is achieved, small brands will then be able to fight the Monopoly oligopoly of bigger brands without making much financial expenditure.

The latest Cisco campaign of advertisements can be highlighted. The camp is geared around the scheduled announcement of the consumer electronics show. On the contrary while developing the advertisement the advertiser did not have much to work in the form of content. Announcement was made in the form of a teaser. In this case, the marketer could not actually demonstrate what was going on in the advertisement even if there is not even a product to feature. This is the reason he employed the humorous advertisement creating the obsolete television support group where we can watch older television’s talking about how they feel useless when there is new technology available (Pettigrew et al., 2020). We find that one of the televisions say that with the advent of DVR, podcast and tablets, they feel overwhelmed and left out. The advertisement was posted on 3rd December and it garnered about 10,000 views in no time without even a product to promote. This is an eminent example of how humour in advertising can help in promotion of the brand. For latest information, seek online assignment help today.


humour in advertising is not intended to create a magical difference in sales. Most organisations with successful humorous campaigns of advertisements, have the objective of creating brand connection and engagement in mind. In summary it can be articulated that in the context of a humorous advertisement to the customers develop a fondness towards the brand and the product without their knowledge. This is because the majority of the brands are trying to create popular customer favour.

Reference List

Barry, J.M. and Graça, S.S., 2018. Humor effectiveness in social video engagement. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 26(1-2), pp.158-180.

Caulfield, J., Day, M. and Phillips, B.J., 2020. Death in advertising: the last taboo?. International Journal of Advertising, pp.1-23.

Dore, M., 2018. Controversial Humor in Advertising: Social and Cultural Implications. Not All Claps and Cheers. Humor in Business and Society Relationships. London: Routledge, pp.132-145.

Eisend, M., 2018. Explaining the use and effects of humour in advertising: an evolutionary perspective. International Journal of Advertising, 37(4), pp.526-547.

Ivanov, L., Eisend, M. And Bayon, T., 2019. Gendering conversational humor in advertising: an evolutionary explanation of the effects of spontaneous versus canned humor. International Journal of Advertising, 38(7), pp.979-999.

Koneska, L., Teofilovska, J. and Dimitrieska, S., 2017. Humor in Advertising. European Journal of Economics and Business Studies, 3(2), pp.116-123.

Mayer, J.M., Kumar, P. and Yoon, H.J., 2019. Does sexual humor work on mars, but not on Venus? An exploration of consumer acceptance of sexually humorous advertising. International Journal of Advertising, 38(7), pp.1000-1024.

Núñez-Barriopedro, E., Klusek, K.G. and Tobar-Pesántez, L., 2019. The effectiveness of humor in advertising: Analysis from an international scope. Academy of Strategic Management Journal, 18(4), pp.1-11.

Pettigrew, S., Jongenelis, M.I., Jongenelis, G., Pierce, H., Stafford, J. And Keric, D., 2020. Get them laughing to get them drinking: an analysis of alcohol advertising themes across multiple media in Australia. Journal of studies on alcohol and drugs, 81(3), pp.311-319.

Phua, J. And Kim, J.J., 2018. Starring in your own Snapchat advertisement: Influence of self-brand congruity, self-referencing and perceived humor on brand attitude and purchase intention of advertised brands. Telematics and Informatics, 35(5), pp.1524-1533.

Primanto, A.B. and Dharmmesta, B.S., 2019. What happens after they laugh: How humorous advertisements have an effect on consumers’ attitudes, word of mouth intentions, and purchase intentions, with the need for humor playing a moderating role. Journal of Indonesian Economy and Business, 34(2), p.117.

Riecken, G. and Hensel, K., 2020. Using humor in advertising: When does it work?. Southern Business Review, 37(2), pp.27-37.

Wang, Y., Lu, S., Liu, J., Tan, J. And Zhang, J., 2019. The Influence of Culture on Attitudes Towards Humorous Advertising. Frontiers in psychology, 10, p.1015.

Yeo, S.K., Cacciatore, M.A., Su, L.Y.F., McKasy, M. And O’Neill, L., 2021. Following science on social media: The effects of humor and source likability. Public Understanding of Science, p.0963662520986942.

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